1. Pathophysiology and Classification of Kidney Diseases (2023)

  • Journal List
  • v.20(1); 2009 Apr
  • PMC4975264

1. Pathophysiology and Classification of Kidney Diseases (1)


EJIFCC. 2009 Apr; 20(1): 2–11.

Published online 2009 Apr 20.

PMCID: PMC4975264

PMID: 27683321

Mirjana Sabljar Matovinović

Copyright and License information Disclaimer

1.1 Classification of CKD

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is far more prevalent worldwide than was previously assumed. It affects 10 - 15% of the adult population in the western countries, many of whom require costly treatments or renal replacement therapy. According to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease report nearly 26 million persons in the USA fall into this category and another 20 millions are at an increased risk for CKD. Moreover, it has been recognized that CKD is a major risk factor for increased cardiovascular disease and death. This knowledge has been incorporated in the recent cardiologic guidelines as well as in the 2007 European Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension. At the same time, there is an increasing prevalence of diseases that predispose individuals to CKD, such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and other, rendering the prevention and early detection of CKD a health-care priority in both developed and developing countries.

In 2002 the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) of the National Kidney Foundation has published guidelines to define CKD and to classify stages in its progression. This classification system is based on the level of kidney function as estimated by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) regardless of the underlying pathology. Subsequent interventional guidelines, specific to each of these stages, have been published on dyslipidemia, bone mineral metabolism and disease, and blood pressure. In 2004 the international organization Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), governed by an international board of directors, was formed to address the worldwide epidemic of CKD by facilitating the development and implementation of the guidelines with a stated mission to “improve the care and outcomes of kidney disease patients worldwide through promoting coordination, collaboration and integration of initiatives to develop and implement clinical practice guidelines”. KDIGO held the first conference in Amsterdam in November 2004. The recommendations from the conference were ratified by the KDIGO board of directors in Paris in December 2004 offering, as a position statement, a clearer definition of CKD and its classification (Tables 1.1. and 1.2.) and practical advice on its screening and management.

Table 1.1.

Criteria for the definition of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

Kidney damage for ≥ 3 months, as defined by structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney, with or without decreased GFR, that can lead to decreased GFR, manifest by either:
  • Pathologic abnormalities; or

  • Markers of kidney damage, including abnormalities in the composition of the blood or urine, or abnormalities in imaging tests

GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for ≥ 3 months, with or without kidney damage

Table 1.2.

Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney Int 2005;67:2089.

1. Pathophysiology and Classification of Kidney Diseases (2)

Open in a separate window

Open in a separate window

Treatment by dialysis or transplantation was added in this K/DOQI modified classification. According to Levey, this was deemed necessary to link with clinical care and policy, especially regarding reimbursement. The „T“ was added for all kidney transplant recipient at any level of GFR (CKD stages 1-5) and „D“ for dialysis for CKD stage 5. Irrespective of the level of GFR at which the dialysis was initiated, all patients treated with dialysis were designated as CKD stage 5D. To improve the classification the need for elucidation of the cause of CKD as well as the prognosis was expressed.

In line with these considerations, a growing body of literature is questioning the appropriateness of grouping all patients with similar GFR in the same CKD stage, given the considerable heterogeneity in the CKD population. Studies by Menon, O, Hare and their coworkers have shown that outcomes in the same CKD stage can vary considerably depending on age, background cardiovascular risk, etiology and the rate of CKD progression. There are claims that staging system needs to be modified to reflect the severity and complications of CKD in order to allow identification and treatment of clinically relevant disease and avoidance of what seem exaggerated prevalence estimates. These considerations will probably be taken into account by the next K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for CKD.

(Video) Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) | Etiology, Pathophysiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment

1.2 Pathophysiology of kidney disease

When discussing the pathophysiology of CKD, renal structural and physiological characteristics, as well as the principles of renal tissue injury and repair should be taken into consideration.

(Video) Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Pathophysiology

Firstly, the rate of renal blood flow of approximately 400 ml/100g of tissue per minute is much greater than that observed in other well perfused vascular beds such as heart, liver and brain. As a consequence, renal tissue might be exposed to a significant quantity of any potentially harmful circulating agents or substances. Secondly, glomerular filtration is dependent on rather high intra- and transglomerular pressure (even under physiologic conditions), rendering the glomerular capillaries vulnerable to hemodynamic injury, in contrast to other capillary beds. In line with this, Brenner and coworkers identified glomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration as major contributors to the progression of chronic renal disease. Thirdly, glomerular filtration membrane has negatively charged molecules which serve as a barrier retarding anionic macromolecules. With disruption in this electrostatic barrier, as is the case in many forms of glomerular injury, plasma protein gains access to the glomerular filtrate. Fourthly, the sequential organization of nephron’s microvasculature (glomerular convolute and the peritubular capillary network) and the downstream position of the tubuli with respect to glomeruli, not only maintains the glomerulo-tubular balance but also facilitates the spreading of glomerular injury to tubulointerstitial compartment in disease, exposing tubular epithelial cells to abnormal ultrafiltrate. As peritubular vasculature underlies glomerular circulation, some mediators of glomerular inflammatory reaction may overflow into the peritubular circulation contributing to the interstitial inflammatory reaction frequently recorded in glomerular disease. Moreover, any decrease in preglomerular or glomerular perfusion leads to decrease in peritubular blood flow, which, depending on the degree of hypoxia, entails tubulointerstitial injury and tissue remodeling. Thus, the concept of the nephron as a functional unit applies not only to renal physiology, but also to the pathophysiology of renal diseases. In the fifth place, the glomerulus itself should also be regarded as a functional unit with each of its individual constituents, i.e. endothothelial, mesangial, visceral and parietal epithelial cells - podocytes, and their extracellular matrix representing an integral part of the normal function. Damage to one will in part affect the other through different mechanisms, direct cell-cell connections (e.g., gap junctions), soluble mediators such as chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and changes in matrix and basement membrane composition.

The main causes of renal injury are based on immunologic reactions (initiated by immune complexes or immune cells), tissue hypoxia and ischaemia, exogenic agents like drugs, endogenous substances like glucose or paraproteins and others, and genetic defects. Irrespective of the underlying cause glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis are common to CKD.

An overview of the pathophysiology of CKD should give special consideration to mechanisms of glomerular, tubular and vascular injury.

1.2.1 Mechanism of glomerular impairment

Hereditary defects account for a minority of glomerular disease. A prototype of an inherited glomerular disease is the Alport’s syndrome or hereditary nephritis, usually transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait although autosomal dominant and recessive forms have been reported as well. In its classical X-linked form there is a mutation in the COL4A5 gene that encodes the α5 chain of type IV collagen located on the X chromosome. As a consequence, GBM is irregular with longitudinal layering, splitting or thickening, and the patient develops progressive glomerulosclerosis and renal failure. Other types of inherited glomerular disease are thin membrane syndrome, nail-patella syndrome, partial lipodystrophy, and familial lecithin-cholesterol acyltranferase deficiency.

Most acquired glomerular disease is triggered by immune mediated injury, metabolic and mechanical stress. From a pathological and pathogenetic point of view glomerular diseases can broadly be divided into three groups:

  • nonproliferative (without cell proliferation) glomerular diseases without glomerular inflammation and without deposition of immunoglobulins (minimal change disease, idiopathic focal, and segmental glomerulosclerosis [FSGS]) or with deposition of immunoglobulins, but without glomerular inflammation, most likely because of subepithelial localization of immunoglobulins (e.g., membranous nephropathy)

  • proliferative glomerular diseases with deposition of immunoglobulins leading to increased cellularity (proliferative glomerulonephrites, e.g., lupus nephritis, IgA nephropathy, anti-GBM, postinfectious GN), or with severe glomerular injury and inflammation, but without deposition of immunoglobulins (e.g., pauci-immune glomerulonephritis).

  • heterogenous group of glomerular diseases in systemic diseases like glomerular disease in diabetes, amyloidosis and paraproteinemia.

The podocyte seems to occupy the central role in the pathogenesis of the first group of glomerular diseases as well as in diabetic nephropathy. This topic will be elaborated separately.

In the second group of glomerular diseases with cell proliferation, either deposition of immune complexes from the circulation or formed in situ lead to activation of intrinsic renal cells (via Fc receptors and complement cascade activation), resulting in inflammatory cell recruitment. Futhermore, severe glomerular injury and inflammation can occur without discernible immune complexes in the glomeruli, as in ANCA (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) positive glomerulonephritis. The offending etiologic agents are mainly unknown, with the rare exception of ß hemolytic streptococci in poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, and hepatitis C virus in type 1 cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Most antibody-mediated glomerulonephrites are initiated by the reactivity of circulatory antibodies and glomerular antigens, whereby antigens might be the components of normal glomerular parenchyma as in anti-GBM antibody disease (Goodpasture’ syndrome), or the antigens are planted from the circulation within the glomeruli as in poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (the in situ formation of immune complexes). The immune complexes formed in systemic circulation can be deposited and trapped in glomeruli (in cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis). Additional mechanism of antibody-mediated glomerular injury, but without immune complexes in the glomeruli, is represented by circulating autoantibody against neutrophil cytoplasmatic antigens (ANCA). Reactive oxygen species, protease, cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators originating from recruited and resident inflammatory cells play the key pathogenic roles.

Immune complexes can be deposited in the mesangium (as in IgA nephropathy, Henoch Schonlein purpura, lupus nephritis class II, postinfectious GN), in subendothelial (lupus nephritis class III, membranoproliferative GN), or subepithelial area (idiopatic membranous nephropathy or class V lupus nephritis, postinfectious GN), or along GBM (as in anti-GBM disease). The site of antibody deposition defines the response to injury and clinicopathological presentation. A strong inflammatory reaction occurs only when circulating inflammatory cells can be activated by contact with immunoglobulins or soluble products released by intrinsic renal cells. Thereby, the deposition of antibodies in the subendothelial area, mesangium or membrane elicits a nephritic response, as the position of immune complexes enables activation of endothelial or mesangial cells which release soluble products and rapidly recruit leukocytes and platelets from the blood. Leukocyte-derived products, such as cytokines, lysosomal enzymes, reactive oxygen species, complement components and other, damage the vascular wall and filtration barrier and attract more leukocytes from the circulation. The subepithelial position of immune complexes (as in membranous nephropathy) leads to nephrotic response, as GBM precludes the contact between immune complexes and inflammatory cells from the circulation. Another reason for this kind of response is that large fluid flow from vascular lumen to Bowman’s space does not permit inflammatory mediators formed in the subepithelium to diffuse retrogradely from epithelial to the endothelial layer and vascular lumen.

Tissue injury after IC deposition is mediated through complement activation resulting in the formation of C5-9 membrane attack complex which appears to be the major effector of glomerular injury through release of chemotactic C5a and C3a. C5-9-activated cells release chemokines and oxidant proteases, and upregulate adhesion molecules.

T-cells also act as mediators of glomerular injury and as modulators of the production of nephrite/ogenic antibodies, especially in pauci-immune GN. They interact through their surface receptor/CD3 complex with antigens presented in the clefts of MHC molecules of endothelial, mesangial and epithelial glomerular cells. This process is facilitated by the cell-cell adhesion and costimulatory molecules. Once activated, T-cells release cytokines and other mediators of inflammatory reaction, cytotoxicity and fibrogenesis. Soluble factors from T cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of minimal change disease and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, but their identity has yet to be determined.

TGF-ß and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) are important in glomerular fibrogenesis, as they stimulate glomerular cells to produce extracellular matrix (ECM), a key event in the progression of kidney disease, inhibiting the synthesis of tissue protease, mostly matrix metalloproteinase, which otherwise degradates matrix proteins.

Glomerular inflammation can either completely recover or resolve with a variable degree of fibrosis. The resolution process requires cessation of further antibodies production and immune complex formation, degradation and removal of deposited and circulating immune complexes, cessation of recruitment and clearing of inflammatory cells, dispersing of inflammatory mediators, normalization of endothelial adhesiveness, permeability and vascular tone, and clearance of proliferating resident glomerular cells.

Nonimmunologic glomerular injury. Hemodynamic, metabolic and toxic injuries can induce glomerular impairment alone or in conjunction with immunological processes.

Systemic hypertension translated to glomeruli and glomerular hypertension resulting from local changes in glomerular hemodynamics may cause glomerular injury. The kidney is normally protected from systemic hypertension by autoregulation which can be overwhelmed by high blood pressure, meaning that systemic hypertension is translated directly to glomerular filtration barrier causing glomerular injury. Chronic hypertension leads to arteriolar vasoconstriction and sclerosis with consequent secondary sclerosis and glomerular and tubulointerstitial atrophy. Different growth factors like angiotensin II, EGF, PDGF, and CSGF, TGF-ß cytokine, activation of stretch-activated ion channels and early response gene are involved in coupling high blood pressure to myointimal proliferation and vessel wall sclerosis.

Glomerular hypertension is normally an adaptive mechanism in remaining nephrons to increased workload resulting from nephron loss, whatever the cause. This sustained intraglomerular hypertension increases mesangial matrix production and leads to glomerulosclerosis by ECM accumulation. The process is mediated by TGF-ß in the first place, with a contribution of angiotensin II, PDGF, CSGF and endothelins.

Systemic and glomerular hypertension are not necessarily associated, as glomerular hypertension may precede systemic hypertension in glomerular disease.

(Video) Chronic kidney disease - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Metabolic injury as that occurring in diabetes is discussed separately.

1.2.2 Mechanism of tubulointerstitial impairment

Regardless of the etiology, chronic kidney disease is characterized by renal fibrosis - glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The impairment of the tubulointerstitium (tubulointerstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy) is at least as important as that of the glomeruli (glomerulosclerosis). There is a common consensus that the severity of tubulointerstitial injury correlates closely (and better than glomerular injury) with long-term impairment of renal function. This is not surprising, considering that tubules and interstitium occupy more than 90% of the kidney volume. As very recently summarized by Fine and Norman, tubulointerstitial fibrosis encompasses a number of characteristic features including an inflammatory cell infiltrate which results from both activation of resident inflammatory cells and recruitment of circulating inflammatory cells; an increase in interstitial fibroblasts due to increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of resident interstitial cells, as well as recruitment of cells to the tubulointerstitium; the appearance of myofibroblasts expressing the cytoskeletal protein α-smooth muscle actin, which arise by differentiation of resident interstitial fibroblasts and infiltrating cells and via transdifferentiation; accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) as the net result of increased synthesis of ECM components and decreased ECM degradation, mostly by specific metalloproteinases that are under the control of specific inhibitors; tubular atrophy as a consequence of apoptosis and epithelial–mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT); and rarefaction of peritubular capillaries. The development of fibrosis is associated with an increase in the expression of proinflammatory, vasoconstrictive and profibrotic factors.

Renal fibrogenesis. The initial insult leads to inflammatory response with the generation and local release of soluble mediators, an increase in local vascular permeability, activation of endothelial cells, extravasation of leukocytes along the endothelium, subsequent secretion of various mediators by infiltrating leukocytes and tubulointerstitial cells, and activation of profibrotic cells. As a consequence a vicious cycle of cell stress is initiated generating profibrotic and proinflammatory mediators, leukocyte infiltration and fibrosis.

Induction and development of the inflammatory response. Leukocytes migrate from the circulation through postcapillary venules and peritubular capillaries into the interstitium following gradients of chemoattractants and chemokines. All tubular cells can generate soluble mediators when stimulated by hypoxia, ischaemia, infectious agents, drugs, and endogenous toxins like lipids, high glucose, paraproteins or genetic factors as in cystic renal diseases. Glomerular disease is usually associated with a variable degree of tubulointerstitial injury and inflammation because tubular cells are exposed to proteins which are normally not filtered. The factors involved in the formation of tubulointerstitial inflammatory infiltrates are: proteinuria, immune deposits, chemokines, cytokines, calcium phosphate, metabolic acidosis, uric acid, lipids, hypoxia and reactive oxygen species.

The inflammatory infiltrate. Infiltrating inflammatory mononuclear cells are composed of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes, particularly T lymphocytes. CD4-positive T cells and CD3 T cells carrying chemokine receptors CCR5 and CxCR3 are closely associated with renal function. This inflammatory cells secrete profibrotic cytokines.

Profibrotic cytokines. Infiltrating inflammatory cells and resident interstitial macrophages release cytokines which stimulate fibroblasts to become myofibroblasts. The most important profibrotic factors involved in renal fibrogenesis are angiotensin II, TGF-ß1, CTGF, PDGF, FGF-2 (fibroblast growth factor -2), EGF, ET-1, tryptase mast cell. Angiotensin II induces TGF- ß synthesis in tubular epithelial cells and fibroblast. AII induces hypertrophy in tubular epithelial cells together with connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), independently of TGF- ß. It is currently assumed that TGF-ß1 is the key cytokine in renal fibrogenesis.

Fibroblast proliferation and activation. Fibroblasts proliferate and become active following infiltration of inflammatory cells into the tubulointerstitial space. To express α-smooth muscle actin, the fibroblasts must be activated by cytokines (mostly derived from infiltrating macrophages), change their phenotype and transit from fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. The important mitogens for renal fibroblast are PDGF, bFGF-2 and others, but no single profibrotic „master cytokine„ has been identified so far.

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Phenotypic conversion of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells is known as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Evidence for EMT in human disease comes from utilization of mesenchymal marker proteins such as vimentin or S100A4, the human analogue of fibroblast-specific protein-1. The expression of these mesenchymal marker proteins in tubular epithelial cells was well correlated with renal function in IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis and chronic allograft failure. TGF-ß1 is thought to be the most potent inducer of EMT, which may be induced by a variety of factors other than cytokines.

It has been shown lately that hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), considered to be master regulator of the adaptive response controlling expression of hundreds of genes, also stimulates EMT, which explains why hypoxia results in fibrosis and progressive renal failure. Hypoxia as a consequence of peritubular capillaries loss has been frequently observed in chronic kidney disease. It alters proximal tubular epithelial (PTE) matrix metabolism, promoting ECM accumulation, with a switch to production of interstitial collagen and suppression of matrix degradation. Exposure of PTE to hypoxia induces transition to myofibroblastic phenotype, whereas more prolonged exposure leads to mitochondrial injury and apoptosis consistent with the loss of tubular cells in vivo. In PTE, hypoxia also induces expression of fibrogenic factors. Reports from biopsies carried out in patients with diabetic nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, polycistic kidney disease, and chronic allograft nephropathy have confirmed increased expression of HIF, supporting the hypothesis that hypoxia is an important contributory factor in the pathogenesis of CKD in humans. Furthermore, changes in HIF expression correlate with the extent of tubulointerstitial injury.

Proteinuria and tubulointerstitial damage. Proteinuria can damage tubulointerstitium through multiple pathways including direct tubular toxicity, changes in tubular epithelial metabolism, induced cytokine and chemokine synthesis, and increased expression of adhesion molecules. (Abbate). Excess protein reabsorption in proximal tubule may exceed lysosomal processing capacity, lead to lysosomal rupture and result in direct tubular toxicity. There is a great variability in tubular toxicity induced by proteinuria. For example, patients with nephrotic range proteinuria exclusively consisting of albuminuria as in minimal change disease, rarely exhibit tubulointerstitial damage. Different experimental models have demonstrated generation of chemotactic factor for macrophages, secretion of chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and RANTES, and expression of fractalkine (a chemokine promoting mononuclear cell adhesion). In addition to inducing chemokine secretion proteinuria may induce secretion of TGF-ß as well as that of adhesion intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular adhesion molecule-1. In a study reporting on results from 119 renal biopsies the formation of interstitial infiltrates and the degree of tubulointerstitial fibrosis was associated with the level of expression of adhesion molecules.

The reversibility of renal fibrosis was demonstrated in different animal studies with relatively mild degrees of fibrosis. In this context BMP-7, which offers strategy to prevent the progression of renal disease and possibly even reverse fibrosis, has been extensively studied. However, only Fioretto has given evidence of reversibility of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in humans in a small group of patients with type 1 diabetes who underwent pancreas transplantation.

Open in a separate window

Schlondorff DO. Overall scheme of factors and pathways contributing to the progression of renal disease. Kidney Int 2008;74:860-6.

(Video) Chronic Kidney Disease EXPLAINED [Pathogenesis, Effects, & Staging]

Recommended literature:

1. Coresh J, Astor BC, Graene T, et al.Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult US population. Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Kidney Dis2003;41:1-12. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

2. National Kidney Foundation. Kidney Disease. New York, NY: National Kidney Foundation:2008. Available at http://www.kidney.org/kidney disease. [Google Scholar]

3. Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D, et al.Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. N Engl J Med2004;351:1296-1305. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

4. 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension. The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) J Hypertens2007;25:1105-1187. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

5. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative. Am J Kidney Dis2002;39:S1-S246. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

6. Eknoyan G, Lameire N, Barsoum R, et al.: The burden of kidney disease: Improving global outcomes. Kidney Int2004;66:1310-1314. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

7. Levey AS, Eckardt KU, Tsukamoto Y, et al.Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease: A position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney Int2005;67:2089-2100. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

8. Menon V, Wang X, Sarnak MJ, et al.Long-term outcomes in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int2008;73:1310-1315. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

9. O’Hare AM, Choi AI, Bertenthal D.Age affects outcomes in chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol2007;18:2758-2765. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

10. Bauer C, Melamed ML, Hostetter H.Staging of chronic kidney disease:time for a course correction. J Am Soc Nephrol2008;19:844-846. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

11. Schlondorff DO.Overview of factors contributing to the pathophysiology of progressive renal disease. Kidney Int2008;74:860-866. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

12. Segerer S, Kretzler M, Strutz F, et al.Mechanisms of tissue injury and repair in renal diseases. Schrier R. (ed). Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract. Lippincott, Philadelphia: 2007;Chapter 57. [Google Scholar]

13. Strutz FM.EMT and proteinuria as progression factors. Kidney Int (20August2008), doi: 10.1038/ki.2008.425 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

14. Fine LG, Norman JT.Chronic hypoxia as a mechanism of progression of chronic kidney diseases: from hypothesis to novel therapeutics. Kidney Int2008;74:867-872. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

15. Ronco P, Chatziantoniou C.Matrix metalloproteinases and matrix receptors in progression and reversal of kidney disease: therapeutic perspectives. Kidney Int2008;74,873-878. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

16. Abbate M, Zoja C, Remuzzi G.How does proteinuria cause progressive renal damage?J Am Soc Nephrol2006;17:2974-2984. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

17. Roy-Chaudhury P, Wu B, King G, et al.Adhesion molecule interaction in human glomerulonephritis: importance of the tubulointerstitium. Kidney Int1996;49:127-134. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

(Video) Chronic Kidney Disease: Stages, Causes, Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, Treatment

18. Fioretto P, Sutherland DE, Najafian B, et al.Remodeling of renal interstitial and tubular lesions in pancreas transplant recipients. Kidney Int2006;69:907-912. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Articles from EJIFCC are provided here courtesy of International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine


What is the pathophysiology of kidney disease? ›

Pathophysiology of CKD. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is initially described as diminished renal reserve or renal insufficiency, which may progress to renal failure (end-stage renal disease).

What is classification of kidney disease? ›

Definition and Classification of Kidney Diseases
Functional Criteria
AKIIncrease in SCr by 50% within 7 d, or increase in SCr by 0.3 mg/dL within 2 d, or oliguria
CKDGFR <60 mL/min for >3 mo
AKDAKI, or GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for <3 mo, or decrease in GFR by ≥35% or increase in SCr by >50% for <3 mo
1 more row
1 May 2013

What is the pathophysiology of acute on chronic kidney disease? ›

Acute kidney injury is often associated with acute illness

In primary care, acute-on-chronic kidney disease is often caused by hypovolaemia due to an episode of concurrent illness, e.g. upper or lower respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, sepsis or gastrointestinal illness.

What are the 4 types of kidney disease? ›

What are the types and causes of kidney disease?
  • Chronic kidney disease. The most common form of kidney disease is chronic kidney disease. ...
  • Kidney stones. Kidney stones are another common kidney problem. ...
  • Glomerulonephritis. ...
  • Polycystic kidney disease. ...
  • Urinary tract infections.
17 Sept 2018

What are the 5 most common types and causes of kidney disease? ›

Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most common causes of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure.
  • Autoimmune kidney diseases.
  • Certain medications.
  • Severe dehydration.
  • A urinary tract obstruction.
  • Untreated systemic diseases, such as heart disease or liver disease.
4 Oct 2022

What is the pathophysiology underlying anemia in kidney disease? ›

The mechanisms involved in anemia associated to CKD are diverse and complex. They include a decrease in endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) production, absolute and/or functional iron deficiency, and inflammation with increased hepcidin levels, among others.

What are the 5 stages of kidney disease? ›

Five stages of chronic kidney disease
  • Stage 1 with normal or high GFR (GFR > 90 mL/min)
  • Stage 2 Mild CKD (GFR = 60-89 mL/min)
  • Stage 3A Moderate CKD (GFR = 45-59 mL/min)
  • Stage 3B Moderate CKD (GFR = 30-44 mL/min)
  • Stage 4 Severe CKD (GFR = 15-29 mL/min)
  • Stage 5 End Stage CKD (GFR <15 mL/min)

How many types of kidney disease are there? ›

There are two main types of kidney disease - short-term (acute kidney injury) and lifelong (chronic). Find out more about each and what they can mean for you. The two main types of kidney disease are short-term (acute kidney injury) and lifelong (chronic kidney disease).

What are the two pathophysiology of renal failure? ›

Acute and chronic renal failure are the two kinds of kidney failure. When a patient needs renal replacement therapy, the condition is called end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

What is chronic kidney disease CKD and how is it classified? ›

CKD is defined as kidney damage or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for 3 months or more, irrespective of cause. Kidney damage in many kidney diseases can be ascertained by the presence of albuminuria, defined as albumin-to-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g in two of three spot urine specimens.

What are the pathophysiological changes that occur with acute kidney injury? ›

Low blood pressure (called “hypotension”) or shock. Blood or fluid loss (such as bleeding, severe diarrhea) Heart attack, heart failure, and other conditions leading to decreased heart function.

What is Type 3 kidney disease? ›

What is Stage 3 CKD? In Stage 3 CKD, your kidneys have mild to moderate damage, and they are less able to filter waste and fluid out of your blood. This waste can build up in your body and begin to harm other areas, such as to cause high blood pressure, anemia and problems with your bones.

Are there 6 stages of kidney disease? ›

Once CKD is diagnosed it is important to determine the level of kidney function. The National Kidney Foundation has identified 6 stages of chronic kidney disease.

What is the most common treatment for kidney disease? ›

The main treatments are: lifestyle changes – to help you stay as healthy as possible. medicine – to control associated problems, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol. dialysis – treatment to replicate some of the kidney's functions, which may be necessary in advanced (stage 5) CKD.

What is the medical term for kidney disease? ›

Nephropathy: any disease of the kidney.

What is the pathophysiology of anemia symptoms? ›

The critical role of Hb to carry oxygen to the tissues explains the most common clinical symptoms of anemia, which include fatigue, shortness of breath, bounding pulses or palpitations, and conjunctival and palmar pallor.

What are the first signs of kidney disease? ›

Signs and symptoms of Stage 1 CKD include:
  • High blood pressure.
  • Swelling in your hands or feet.
  • Urinary tract infections.
  • Protein in your urine.
  • Blood in your urine (also called hematuria)
  • Kidney damage that shows up in an ultrasound, CT scan, MRI, or kidney biopsy.

What is iron deficiency pathophysiology? ›

Pathophysiology of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA):

IDA is a hypochromic-microcytic anemia – red blood cells (RBCs) are abnormally small with low levels of hemoglobin (hgb) Despite the cause, IDA occurs when the body's iron demand exceeds that of it's supply. Two types: iron store depletion vs. metabolic/functional.

What is Stage 4 kidney disease mean? ›

Stage 4 CKD means that your kidneys are moderately or severely damaged and are not working as well as they should to filter waste from your blood. Waste products may build up in your blood and cause other health problems, such as: High blood pressure. Anemia (not enough red blood cells in your body) Bone disease.

What are the stages and symptoms of kidney disease? ›

Early stages of CKD usually don't cause any symptoms because your body can adjust to the lower filtration.
Later stages and worsening chronic kidney disease symptoms include:
  • Swollen ankles and feet.
  • Weight loss.
  • Poor appetite.
  • Muscle cramps.
  • Tiredness.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Trouble sleeping.
  • Blood in your urine.
5 Nov 2021

How is kidney disease diagnosed? ›

The main test for kidney disease is a blood test. The test measures the levels of a waste product called creatinine in your blood. Your doctor uses your blood test results, plus your age, size, gender and ethnic group to calculate how many millilitres of waste your kidneys should be able to filter in a minute.

What are the types and causes of kidney disease? ›

Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most common causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Your health care provider will look at your health history and may do tests to find out why you have kidney disease. The cause of your kidney disease may affect the type of treatment you receive.

What are the effects of kidney disease? ›

Symptoms can include:
  • weight loss and poor appetite.
  • swollen ankles, feet or hands – as a result of water retention (oedema)
  • shortness of breath.
  • tiredness.
  • blood in your pee (urine)
  • an increased need to pee – particularly at night.
  • difficulty sleeping (insomnia)
  • itchy skin.

How can we prevent kidney disease? ›

Prevention Chronic kidney disease
  1. Manage underlying conditions. If you have a long-term condition that could lead to CKD, such as diabetes or high blood pressure, it's important this is managed carefully. ...
  2. Stop smoking. ...
  3. Healthy diet. ...
  4. Manage alcohol intake. ...
  5. Exercise regularly. ...
  6. Be careful with painkillers. ...
  7. Kidney risk calculator.

What is the pathophysiology of kidney stones? ›

The single most important determinant of stone formation is low fluid intake. A low fluid intake results in the production of concentrated urine, causing supersaturation and crystallisation of stone–forming compounds. In addition, low urine flow rates favour crystal deposition on the urothelium.

What is the pathophysiology of pre renal? ›

Prerenal renal failure occurs due to poor perfusion of nephrons, which in turn leads to a decrease in the GFR. Fundamentally, it is related to an imbalance in the delivery of nutrition and oxygen to the nephrons during periods of increased energy demand.

What is the pathophysiology of acute glomerulonephritis? ›

Practice Essentials. Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) comprises a specific set of kidney diseases in which an immunologic mechanism triggers inflammation and proliferation of glomerular tissue that can result in damage to the basement membrane, mesangium, or capillary endothelium.

How many chronic kidney disease stages are there? ›

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is divided into five stages. The stages are based on the eGFR test result and how well your kidneys work to filter waste and extra fluid out of your blood. As the stages go up, kidney disease gets worse and your kidneys work less well.

What is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease? ›

The leading cause of kidney failure is diabetes. High blood pressure is the second leading cause of kidney failure. Both diabetes and high blood pressure damage your kidneys overtime.

What type of condition is chronic kidney disease? ›

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a long-term condition where the kidneys don't work as well as they should. It's a common condition often associated with getting older. It can affect anyone, but it's more common in people who are black or of south Asian origin.

What pathophysiology means? ›

: the physiology of abnormal states. specifically : the functional changes that accompany a particular syndrome or disease.

What is the most common type of acute kidney injury according to pathophysiology? ›

Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is the term used to designate AKI resulting from damage to the tubules. It is the most common type of intrinsic kidney injury.

How is acute kidney injury classified? ›

KDIGO defines AKI as any of the following: Increase in serum creatinine by 0.3mg/dL or more within 48 hours or. Increase in serum creatinine to 1.5 times baseline or more within the last 7 days or. Urine output less than 0.5 mL/kg/h for 6 hours.

What is the importance of kidneys? ›

Their main job is to cleanse the blood of toxins and transform the waste into urine. Each kidney weighs about 160 grams and gets rid of between one and one-and-a-half litres of urine per day. The two kidneys together filter 200 litres of fluid every 24 hours.

What are the 3 main structures in the kidney? ›

The Kidneys Are Composed of Three Main Sections

Each kidney consists of an outer renal cortex, an inner renal medulla, and a renal pelvis.

What is structure of kidney? ›

On the inside, the kidney is divided into an outer renal cortex and an inner renal medulla. The hilum extends inside the kidney into a funnel-like space called the renal pelvis. The renal pelvis has projections called calyces(sing: calyx). The medulla is divided into medullary pyramids, which project into the calyces.

What causes stage 3 kidney disease? ›

According to the National Kidney Foundation, the two most common causes are high blood pressure and diabetes.

How is Stage 3 kidney treated? ›

The more impactful symptoms of kidney disease stage 3 are the health implications of your decreased kidney functioning such as high blood pressure, anemia, and bone disease. If your kidneys fail, you will either need to have dialysis or a kidney transplant. Dialysis is a treatment that will clean your blood.

What are the symptoms of stage 2 kidney disease? ›

Signs and symptoms of Stage 2 CKD include:
  • Protein in your urine.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Swelling in your hands or feet.
  • Urinary tract infections.
  • Blood in your urine (also called hematuria)
  • Kidney damage that shows up in an ultrasound, CT scan, MRI or kidney biopsy.

What causes a kidney infection? ›

A kidney infection usually happens when bacteria, often a type called E. coli, get into the tube that carries urine out of your body (urethra). The bacteria travel up to your bladder, causing cystitis, and then up into your kidneys. E. coli bacteria normally live in your bowel, where they cause no harm.

What is the pathophysiological basis of chronic kidney disease in a patient with poorly controlled long standing diabetes mellitus? ›

Over time, poorly controlled diabetes can cause damage to blood vessel clusters in your kidneys that filter waste from your blood. This can lead to kidney damage and cause high blood pressure. High blood pressure can cause further kidney damage by increasing the pressure in the delicate filtering system of the kidneys.

What is the pathophysiology of kidney stone formation? ›

Kidney stones form when your urine contains more crystal-forming substances — such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid — than the fluid in your urine can dilute. At the same time, your urine may lack substances that prevent crystals from sticking together, creating an ideal environment for kidney stones to form.

What are the 3 types of kidney failure? ›

The five types of kidney failure include:
  • Acute prerenal kidney failure. Insufficient blood flow to the kidneys can cause acute prerenal kidney failure. ...
  • Acute intrinsic kidney failure. ...
  • Chronic prerenal kidney failure. ...
  • Chronic intrinsic kidney failure. ...
  • Chronic post-renal kidney failure.

How many stages of kidney disease are there? ›

There are five stages of kidney disease. To determine what stage you have, your health care provider performs a blood test to check your glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The GFR measures how much blood the kidneys filter each minute, recorded as milliliters per minute (mL/min).

What is the pathophysiology of diabetic kidney disease? ›

Diabetic kidney disease induces structural changes, including thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, fusion of foot processes, loss of podocytes with denuding of the glomerular basement membrane, and mesangial matrix expansion. Diabetic glomerulopathy.

What is the pathophysiology of pyelonephritis? ›

General Pathogenesis

Pyelonephritis results mostly from an ascending infection, from the urethra (when colonised by organisms) to bladder and then through the ureters to the renal parenchyma or from a hematogenous spread.

What are the 4 common causes of kidney stones? ›

Possible causes include drinking too little water, exercise (too much or too little), obesity, weight loss surgery, or eating food with too much salt or sugar. Infections and family history might be important in some people.

What are the steps of kidney formation? ›

Kidney development proceeds in three sequential stages along the urogenital ridge in a rostro-caudal direction, forming first the pronephros, followed by the mesonephros, and finally the metanephric kidney at the caudal end of the urogenital ridge.


1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) | Etiology, Pathophysiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment
(Ninja Nerd)
2. Prerenal acute kidney injury (acute renal failure) - causes, symptoms & pathology
3. Mnemonic: the 5 Stages of chronic kidney disease, based on GFR
(Medicosis Perfectionalis)
4. Chronic Kidney Disease
(Learning in 10)
5. Chronic Kidney Disease, Animation
(Alila Medical Media)
6. Chronic Kidney Disease | Causes and Clinical Manifestations - in 2 mins!
(Dr Matt & Dr Mike)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Otha Schamberger

Last Updated: 19/06/2023

Views: 6280

Rating: 4.4 / 5 (75 voted)

Reviews: 82% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Otha Schamberger

Birthday: 1999-08-15

Address: Suite 490 606 Hammes Ferry, Carterhaven, IL 62290

Phone: +8557035444877

Job: Forward IT Agent

Hobby: Fishing, Flying, Jewelry making, Digital arts, Sand art, Parkour, tabletop games

Introduction: My name is Otha Schamberger, I am a vast, good, healthy, cheerful, energetic, gorgeous, magnificent person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.