Is It Okay to Say "Jew"? | On the Media | WNYC Studios (2022)


LOUIS C.K.: “Jew” is a funny word because –


- it is because “Jew” is the only word that is the, is the polite thing to call a group of people and the slur for the same group.


BROOKE GLADSTONE: That’s Louis C.K., on a word that can be a semantic sand trap. Writing in The New York Times last weekend, Mark Oppenheimer argues that the word has accumulated so many dodgy associations across the centuries that Jews, non-Jews and politicians avoid it altogether. Speaking at the US Capitol in DC at the Holocaust Memorial Museum's Day of Remembrance ceremony on Tuesday, Trump said “Jewish” 11 times but “Jew” only twice.


PRESIDENT TRUMP: We've seen anti-Semitism on university campuses, in the public square and in threats against Jewish citizens.


BROOKE GLADSTONE: Mark, as you noted in your piece, past presidents have suffered from this same verbal tic.

MARK OPPENHEIMER: Yes, you can go back to Ronald Reagan and Obama, as well – it’s a bipartisan tic – which is that when they issue their Passover or sometimes it’s a Passover and Easter proclamation, they send much, much love out to all of the Christians and then they send it to the “Jewish people.” So the Christians get their noun but Jews are not Jews; they’re “Jewish people” or “Jewish families.”

BROOKE GLADSTONE: So how then did “Jew” come to be perceived as a sticky wicket, even in ordinary speech?

MARK OPPENHEIMER: Well, it's not historically the term that Jews themselves have used. It is used. It’s used in the Talmud, for example, but Jews historically have talked of themselves, until the past couple of centuries, as Israelites or Hebrews, that sort of thing. And “Jews” was a word that was often used by other people to describe us. I’ll speak of “us” because I’m a Jew. Now, sometimes it was positive and sometimes it was neutral but beginning in the 17th century, you see it creeping very much into what became modern English, as a slur, as somebody who's rejected Christ or somebody who has congeries of, of negative attributes.

BROOKE GLADSTONE: But we can't say “Hebrews” and “Israelites” anymore.

MARK OPPENHEIMER: [LAUGHS] Right. In the United States and in English, “Israelite” became problematic after 1948 because there actually was a country called Israel, so it became a weird thing to say. And “Hebrew” very much became the language, Hebrew, so talking about people as Hebrews became strange. But, of course, the 92nd Street Y in New York City, the great cultural center, is the Young Men's and Women's Hebrew Association. So it’s – it was only in the last century that we stopped saying “Hebrews.”

BROOKE GLADSTONE: Mm-hmm, but that did leave us with a, a word gap.

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MARK OPPENHEIMER: [LAUGHS] Right, we have a word gap, which is that a couple of the words that we used to all feel comfortable with for a century or two now seem antiquated, so we can’t use them. The natural word that describes this group of people we’re talking about, obviously, is going to be something like “Jew” or “Jewish.” The problem is that the noun “Jew” or the three-letter word “Jew,” for one thing, it’s been used as a very, very negative verb in English, so to “Jew” someone is to try to cheat them, so that's a negative connotation of the word. But also, there is this problem that it is used as a slur, that to call someone “a real Jew,” for example, is negative.

BROOKE GLADSTONE: Since you've cued it, we have a piece of tape that illustrates this point.


DIANE KEATON AS ANNIE HALL: You're what Grammy Hall would call a real Jew.


ANNIE: Yeah, well, you know, she hates Jews. She thinks that they just make money, but let me tell yuh, I mean, she's the one yeah, is she ever, I'm tellin' yuh.




MARK OPPENHEIMER: We know that if we do this thought experiment, someone in - behind us in line at the supermarket refers to someone - let's make it a sweet, nice lady talking in a sweet voice but she refers to someone, to the person she’s standing next to or the person on her cell phone, as a “real Jew,” we would all sort of tense up and think, what a slur. If that same person talked about someone as a “real Christian,” we would all think, ohh, a real Christian –


- well, generous and kind. I mean, and this is true for all Americans and I would say Canadians and Brits, as well, that a real Jew is a bad thing and a real Christian is a good thing. So when the real version of it is bad and negative, even the word itself to say, “I'm a Jew” or “A couple of Jews moved in next door” seems a little bit sinister, even when it's a Jew doing the talking.

BROOKE GLADSTONE: As a matter of fact, in your op-ed you cited a conversation you had with an editor following the 2000 election.

MARK OPPENHEIMER: I was working at the Hartford Current and I was writing a piece about how, according to the popular vote, anyway, but for the Electoral College, the American people just elected a Jew, Senator Lieberman, as vice president.

BROOKE GLADSTONE: But come on, he was a big Jew.

MARK OPPENHEIMER: He was a big Jew! Lieberman's a huge Jew!


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This is, this is part of his selling point and it’s partly why evangelical Christians loved him. You know, he wore his piety on his, his right and left sleeves.


MARK OPPENHEIMER: So, you know, it seemed to me a fairly safe thing to say, especially writing for the newspaper in Hartford, Connecticut, Lieberman's home state that had always elected him resoundingly. And hey, my byline is “Oppenheimer,” that I, I don't think anyone mistakes me for anything but a Jewish reporter. [LAUGHS]


MARK OPPENHEIMER: So it seemed safe to say. The copy desk went ballistic and said, well, you can't say that we elected a Jew, Senator Lieberman as vice president. They wanted to say “a Jewish vice president, Senator Lieberman, rather than “a Jew.” The copy editor was a Gentile, was a non-Jew, a super well-meaning guy who just didn't want me or the newspaper to sound anti-Semitic. But I got my, my hackles up. I said, he is a Jew, why is that a negative thing?

I, of course, was being a bit precious. We all know that for a lot of readers to call someone “a Jew” does feel negative, and that's for Jewish readers, as well as Christian readers.

BROOKE GLADSTONE: Right, because people don't want to be reduced to a single factor. And if you are secular, whether you're Jewish or Christian or Muslim, you don't want to be identified by your religion.

MARK OPPENHEIMER: Well, I - first of all, I think that even irreligious Jews are still Jews. If someone says, what are you, right, they notice your last name, not a last name that’s been changed somewhere along the way, like Gladstone [LAUGHS] –


- but a last name like –

BROOKE GLADSTONE: You mean, made up in steerage? [LAUGHS]

MARK OPPENHEIMER: Yeah, made up in steerage but a last name like Oppenheimer –


MARK OPPENHEIMER: - that’s been Jew-y for, you know, hundreds of years now, and they say, you know, what are you? And we know what they’re asking, right?


MARK OPPENHEIMER: I just there's something great about being able to say “I'm a Jew.”


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MARK OPPENHEIMER: And I don't think - I don't think it necessarily implies a high level of religious observance.

BROOKE GLADSTONE: But I think you make your decision for yourself.

MARK OPPENHEIMER: But my point is there's nothing negative about any of this,


MARK OPPENHEIMER: I feel like some part of you is still saying, if I say I'm a Jew, people will make incorrect assumptions about me.

BROOKE GLADSTONE: I don’t know, I, I would have to dig into my psyche to know if that's true.

MARK OPPENHEIMER: Really, I was urging writers, especially Jewish writers and Jewish politicians and Jewish entertainers, people who, who have a public persona to not be afraid of the noun. All over Twitter, there are Christian athletes, as well as TV stars, as well as animal trainers, in that little bio you get on your homepage, they will often say, you know, I'm a father, I’m a lion tamer, I'm a pastor, I'm a Christian. And it’s lovely that they feel that sort of ownership over that piece of their identity, not their whole identity.

BROOKE GLADSTONE: But my assumption is that if they list it among their defining qualities, then they are practicing Christians.

MARK OPPENHEIMER: First of all, I think that's wrong. I think that’s a misunderstanding of the Christian world. They might just be saying it’s exceedingly central to who I am. But, again, they’ll list it as one of five or ten things.

It’s so characteristic of American Jews, who are so worried about anti-Semitism and do have this tendency to want to keep our heads down, we’re afraid to list “Jew” even as among our top five or ten characteristics. And when we do list it, it has to be, well, “Jew-ish,” not “I'm a Jew.”

BROOKE GLADSTONE: But I think that you’re being, frankly, presumptuous. I am neither fearful of the term, nor, you know, desirous of keeping my head down, God knows!


I just - I don't endorse religiosity of any kind.

MARK OPPENHEIMER: I don’t think the word has anything to do with religiosity, and historically it doesn't. If you're talking to someone on the show and you want to talk about, you know, something that Larry David has just produced or something that Bernie Sanders has just said, and you say, well, so-and-so, who, of course, is Jewish, if saying “he's a Jew” would be presumptuous and say too much, what does “Jew-ish” say? See, I think it says he’s ancestrally Jewish. I think that’s all we presume about Bernie Sanders, right? We’re not presuming anything about his prayer life or his belief in God, or whatever.

All I’m saying is that saying that you're a Jew makes the same claim about heritage but it does it in a way that's - I feel, is a little bit prouder. I'm saying there's no reason to avoid, as the presidents have in these proclamations, “Jews” as a noun.

BROOKE GLADSTONE: That’s a perfect way to end –


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- but I have to raise an issue with you that my co-host, Bob Garfield, raised during our editorial meeting. He says that when a non-Jewish person refers to Jewish people or someone as “Jewish” rather than as “a Jew” he thinks that that's a sign of Jewish discomfort.

MARK OPPENHEIMER: If they use “Jew-ish.”


MARK OPPENHEIMER: I recognize that all of us, Jew and non-Jew alike, have a lot of trouble talking about Jews in English. There is no word that is unloaded. Indeed, one rabbi I know said, we’ll know that anti-Semitism has fully ended when nobody pauses for even a microsecond to think about how to talk about Jews. That's really true. I'm not immune.

As a writer, I often think, do I say that someone is, comma, “a Jew” or do I say “who is Jewish”? This is a really tough question. And I don't presume that I have an answer for how well-meaning Gentile writers can handle this. I only think that, myself, I can be proud about using the word “Jew.” Language changes very fast. You know, if we think about how recently it was that “queer” was an entirely negative term and now it's mostly a positive term used by gay people, if we think about how quickly the euphemism treadmill changes, or “black people” from “Negro” to “colored” to “black” to “African-American” to “of color.” And now “black” is actually coming back, the linguists are saying.


MARK OPPENHEIMER: So language is incredibly quickly mutating, and I think it would be not so difficult a project for us to say that it's okay for Jews to be Jews.

BROOKE GLADSTONE: Thank you very much, Mark.

MARK OPPENHEIMER: Thanks for having me.

BROOKE GLADSTONE: Mark Oppenheimer is the host of the Unorthodox podcast and the author of a forthcoming book about what it means to be a Jew. His recent piece in The New York Times Sunday Review is called, “Reclaiming ‘Jew’”.


WOODY ALLEN AS ALVY SINGER: You know, I was having lunch with some guys from NBC, so I said, uh, did you eat yet or what? And Tom Christie said, no, didchoo? Not, did you, didchoo eat? Jew? No, not did you eat, but Jew eat? Jew. You get it? Jew eat?



BOB GARFIELD: That's it for this week’s show. On the Media is produced by Meara Sharma, Alana Casanova-Burgess, Jesse Brenneman and Micah Loewinger. We had more help from Sara Qari, Leah Feder and Kate Bakhtiyarova. And our show was edited – by Brooke. Our technical director is Jennifer Munson. Our engineers this week were Terence Bernardo and Sam Bair.

BROOKE GLADSTONE: Katya Rogers is our executive producer. Jim Schacter is WNYC’s vice-president for news. Bassist composer Ben Allison wrote our theme. On the Media is a production of WNYC Studios. I’m Brooke Gladstone.

BOB GARFIELD: And I’m Bob Garfield.

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BROOKE GLADSTONE: And this show is dedicated to the memory of Cathy Brenneman. We love you, Jesse.


What God does Jew believe in? ›

Traditionally, Judaism holds that Yahweh, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and the national god of the Israelites, delivered the Israelites from slavery in Egypt, and gave them the Law of Moses at Mount Sinai as described in the Torah.

What makes the Jews unique? ›

Jews were monotheists—they believed in and worshipped only one god. This stands out to historians because monotheism was relatively unique in the ancient world. Most ancient societies were polytheistic—they believed in and worshiped multiple gods. What was the most common form of religion in the ancient world?

Can a Jew listen to music? ›

There's no outright prohibition on secular music, but there is a Torah commandment to “be holy” and a rabbinic prohibition on “unclean speech” (nivul peh). And a lot of religious Jews believe that adds up to a prohibition on music with things like cursing or overt sexual references.

Why do Jews worship? ›

Public worship is very important to Jews for many reasons: it gives Jews an opportunity to listen to and reflect on readings from the Torah and the rest of the Tenakh. it unites the Jewish community. it allows Jews to show love to God, which is a requirement of the Torah.

Can Jews eat pork? ›

Both Judaism and Islam have prohibited eating pork and its products for thousands of years. Scholars have proposed several reasons for the ban to which both religions almost totally adhere. Pork, and the refusal to eat it, possesses powerful cultural baggage for Jews.

Do Jews pray God? ›

Jews are supposed to pray three times a day; morning, afternoon, and evening. The Jewish prayer book (it's called a siddur) has special services set down for this. Praying regularly enables a person to get better at building their relationship with God.

What religion believes in one God? ›

The three religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam readily fit the definition of monotheism, which is to worship one god while denying the existence of other gods.

Who founded Judaism? ›

According to the text, God first revealed himself to a Hebrew man named Abraham, who became known as the founder of Judaism. Jews believe that God made a special covenant with Abraham and that he and his descendants were chosen people who would create a great nation.

What music do Jews like? ›

Pizmonim are traditional Jewish songs and melodies praising God and describing certain aspects of traditional religious teachings. Pizmonim are traditionally associated with Middle Eastern Sephardic Jews, although they are related to Ashkenazi Jews' zemirot (see below).

Do Jews sing their prayers? ›

Most of the Jewish liturgy is sung or chanted with traditional melodies or trope. Synagogues may designate or employ a professional or lay hazzan (cantor) for the purpose of leading the congregation in prayer, especially on Shabbat or holidays.

Can you listen to music on Shabbat? ›

Music has played a central role in religious rites across cultures and throughout time. And yet, traditional Jewish practice has mainly forbidden the use of musical instruments on Shabbat and Yom Tov, days that are uniquely focused on spirituality and on transcending the mundane.

Where do Jews go to pray? ›

Instead, a Jew prays at home and in the synagogue: they invite God into their daily lives in the blessings they recite each day, and they are reminded of and connect to the will of God while also studying and discussing – on a daily basis – the Word of God.

Which is world's oldest religion? ›

The word Hindu is an exonym, and while Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, many practitioners refer to their religion as Sanātana Dharma (Sanskrit: सनातन धर्म, lit.

Why is God's name not in the Bible? ›

The reason is that during the Second Temple period, most likely in the early 5th century B.C.E., Jews decided that that name was ineffable, too holy to be uttered aloud. This was based on a particular interpretation of the third commandment, “Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.”

Can Jews drink alcohol? ›

Jewish tradition permits controlled alcohol drinking, whereas Muslim tradition prohibits the use of any alcohol. Increasing exposure of the traditionally conservative Arab sector to the Western culture of modern Israel might impact on and be reflected in the drinking patterns of these two populations.

Can Jews eat cheeseburgers? ›

According to Jewish dietary law, meat products are prohibited to be consumed with milk or products derived from milk, such as cheese.

Can Jews eat lobster? ›

Lobster is not kosher: Jewish Scriptures prohibit eating all shellfish. Nevertheless, Maine's Jews have developed a pronounced fondness for one of this state's signature dishes. Many Jewish Mainers eat lobster even though they would never eat pork, another forbidden food.

What do Jews say at the end of a prayer? ›

In Judaism, congregants say amen in response to the words of the rabbi, or spiritual leader. The term appears as part of a number Jewish prayers.

What do Jews say when praying? ›

I give thanks unto You, Adonai, that, in mercy, You have restored my soul within me. Endless is Your compassion; great is Your faithfulness. I thank You, Adonai, for the rest You have given me through the night and for the breath that renews my body and spirit.

What do the Jews believe? ›

Judaism, monotheistic religion developed among the ancient Hebrews. Judaism is characterized by a belief in one transcendent God who revealed himself to Abraham, Moses, and the Hebrew prophets and by a religious life in accordance with Scriptures and rabbinic traditions.

Who is the mother of all religions? ›

The speech of Vivekananda went on to bridge the gap between India and America as Swamiji went on to promote Hinduism as the 'mother of religions' and one that has taught the world-- tolerance.

Who is the first God in the earth? ›

Who is Brahma? Brahma is the first god in the Hindu triumvirate, or trimurti. The triumvirate consists of three gods who are responsible for the creation, upkeep and destruction of the world. The other two gods are Vishnu and Shiva.

Which is the most powerful religion in the world? ›

Major religious groups
  • Christianity (31.2%)
  • Islam (24.1%)
  • Irreligion (16%)
  • Hinduism (15.1%)
  • Buddhism (6.9%)
  • Folk religions (5.7%)
  • Sikhism (0.3%)
  • Judaism (0.2%)

Who created Christianity? ›

Christianity originated with the ministry of Jesus, a Jewish teacher and healer who proclaimed the imminent Kingdom of God and was crucified c. AD 30–33 in Jerusalem in the Roman province of Judea.

Who is the first God in heaven? ›

God the Father is a title given to God in various religions, most prominently in Christianity. In mainstream trinitarian Christianity, God the Father is regarded as the first person of the Trinity, followed by the second person, God the Son Jesus Christ, and the third person, God the Holy Spirit.

How many Jews are there in the world? ›

14.8 million

What is the difference between Christians and Jews? ›

Jews believe in individual and collective participation in an eternal dialogue with God through tradition, rituals, prayers and ethical actions. Christianity generally believes in a Triune God, one person of whom became human. Judaism emphasizes the Oneness of God and rejects the Christian concept of God in human form.

What can Jews eat? ›

Kosher rules
  • Land animals must have cloven (split) hooves and must chew the cud, meaning that they must eat grass.
  • Seafood must have fins and scales. ...
  • It is forbidden to eat birds of prey. ...
  • Meat and dairy cannot be eaten together, as it says in the Torah : do not boil a kid in its mother's milk (Exodus 23:19) .

Where did the Jews come from? ›

The land of Israel is the birthplace of the Jewish people. Approximately 4,000 years ago, Abraham moved to the land of Israel where he lived with his family, raised his children and purchased land to bury his wife and himself. After Abraham came Isaac and Jacob.

Does Islam allow music? ›

Imam al-Ghazzali, reported several hadith and came to the conclusion that music in and of itself is permitted, saying: "All these Ahadith are reported by al-Bukhari and singing and playing are not haram." He also references a narration from Khidr, wherein a favorable opinion of music is expressed.

What is kosher music? ›

MOSTLY KOSHER is a musical feast that explodes into a global food-fight of Jazz, Latin, Rock, and Folk. In response to the poetry and folk music of Judaic roots, their original voice resounds with themes of social justice, human dignity and mutual understanding.

Where was Ladino spoken? ›

Ladino language, also called Judeo-Spanish, Judesmo, or Sephardi, Romance language spoken by Sephardic Jews living mostly in Israel, the Balkans, North Africa, Greece, and Turkey. Ladino is very nearly extinct in many of these areas.

Why do Jews not mix milk and meat? ›

In Jewish tradition, the prohibition on mixing dairy and meat products has been interpreted in several different ways. Some see it as an implementation of the same principle of separating animals authorised for consumption from those that are forbidden.

Why do Jews break glass? ›

The breaking of the glass holds multiple meanings. Some say it represents the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. Others say it demonstrates that marriage holds sorrow as well as joy and is a representation of the commitment to stand by one another even in hard times.

Why do Jews wrap their arms? ›

The usage of tefillin, also called phylacteries, dates back to scriptural commandments in the books of Deuteronomy and Exodus urging the faithful followers to comply with religious law and to “bind them as a sign upon your arm.” Rubinstein says the binding of the arm and the discomfort users often report may serve as a ...

Can you clap on Shabbat? ›

The original injunction against clapping only included clapping to a specific rhythm or beat, since that type of clapping may lead to the fashioning of musical instruments. Applause, clapping to wake someone from his sleep or any other type of clapping not done to a specific rhythm, is permitted.

Can I dance on Shabbat? ›

In many chassidic circles the custom is to permit dancing on Shabbos and Yom Tov. The Minchas Elazer (1:29) explains that dancing and singing is permitted for those who are engrossed in the simcha of Shabbos, since for them it is considered a mitzvah.

Can you use your phone on Shabbat? ›

Many Jews who strictly observe Shabbat (the Sabbath) refrain from using electrical devices on Shabbat, with the exception of passive enjoyment of devices which were set up before Shabbat.

Do Jews say God? ›

It is common Jewish practice to restrict the use of the names of God to a liturgical context. In casual conversation some Jews, even when not speaking Hebrew, will call God HaShem (השם), which is Hebrew for "the Name" (cf.

Do Muslims call God Yahweh? ›

Q&A: 'Yahweh' or 'Allah' -- Who was Abraham's God? | Dr. Shabir Ally

Does Judaism believe in the Holy Spirit? ›

In Judaism, the Holy Spirit (Hebrew: רוח הקודש, ruach ha-kodesh) refers to the divine force, quality, and influence of God over the universe or over God's creatures, in given contexts.

What religion believes in Yahweh? ›

Towards the end of the Babylonian captivity, the very existence of foreign gods was denied, and Yahweh was proclaimed as the creator of the cosmos and the one true God of all the world, giving birth to Judaism, which has c. 14–15 million adherents today.

When did Jews stop saying Yahweh? ›

After the Babylonian Exile (6th century bce), and especially from the 3rd century bce on, Jews ceased to use the name Yahweh for two reasons.

Is OMG taking the Lords name in vain? ›

"If you say something like 'Oh my God,' then you're using His name in vain, but if you're saying something like OMG it's not really using the Lord's name in vain because you're not saying 'Oh my God. ' It's more like 'Wow.

Do Jews say God bless you? ›

The phrase has been used in the Hebrew Bible by Jews (cf. Numbers 6:24), and by Christians, since the time of the early Church as a benediction, as well as a means of bidding a person Godspeed.

Is Allah a male? ›

Thus, Allah is typically referred to as "he", despite not having any gender attributes.

What do Muslims think of Christians? ›

Muslims view Christians to be People of the Book, and also regard them as kafirs (unbelievers) committing shirk (polytheism) because of the Trinity, and thus, contend that they must be dhimmis (religious taxpayers) under Sharia law. Christians similarly possess a wide range of views about Islam.

Are Allah and Yahweh same? ›

Though Muslims and Christians can describe Allah and Yahweh in similar ways at times, they are not the same god.

Do Muslims believe in the Holy Spirit? ›

So, yes, Muslims believe in the Virgin Mary, the Holy Spirit and Jesus Christ as given to us in the Qur'an and as exemplified in the life model of Prophet Muhammed.

Is the Holy Spirit in Islam? ›

The Holy Spirit (Arabic: رُوحُ ٱلْقُدُسِ, ruh al-qudus) is mentioned four times in the Quran, where it acts as an agent of divine action or communication. The Muslim interpretation of the Holy Spirit is generally consistent with other interpretations based upon the Old and the New Testaments.

Is Holy Spirit and Holy Ghost the same? ›

In the scriptures, the Holy Ghost is called by several names, such as: “the Spirit,” “the Spirit of God,” “the Spirit of the Lord,” “the Spirit of Truth,” “the Holy Spirit,” and “the Comforter.” Some of these same terms are also used to refer to the Light of Christ, which may also be called “the Spirit of Christ,” and ...

What is Jesus real name? ›

Jesus' name in Hebrew was “Yeshua” which translates to English as Joshua.

Who created God? ›

We ask, "If all things have a creator, then who created God?" Actually, only created things have a creator, so it's improper to lump God with his creation. God has revealed himself to us in the Bible as having always existed.

Why was God's name removed from the Bible? ›

The reason is that during the Second Temple period, most likely in the early 5th century B.C.E., Jews decided that that name was ineffable, too holy to be uttered aloud. This was based on a particular interpretation of the third commandment, “Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.”


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