Optic Neuropathy: What Is It & Can You Reverse It? | NVISION Eye Centers (2022)

Table of Contents

  • Optic Neuropathy
  • Symptoms
  • Problems
  • Treatment

Optic neuropathy is damage to the optic nerve, involving changes to blood flow, harm to structures in the eye, and other underlying causes.

Symptoms are mostly vision loss, which can be total and sudden. It may involve clouding or blurriness, loss of color vision, loss of peripheral vision, and vision fading in and out.

Damage to the optic nerve can come from disease, malnutrition, chronic inflammation, chronic illnesses, tumors, aneurysms or strokes, injury, genetics, and toxins in the environment. Diagnosing these underlying conditions and treating them will slow down damage to the optic nerve.

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Report any symptoms of optic neuropathy to your ophthalmologist or general practitioner. You may not recover the vision you lost, but you can keep the vision you still have.Optic Neuropathy: What Is It & Can You Reverse It? | NVISION Eye Centers (1)

What Is Optic Neuropathy?

Optic neuropathy is a condition caused by the damage or degradation of the optic nerve. It can lead to blindness.

This eye problem has several underlying causes. These should be treated in order to slow or stop the progression of optic nerve damage.

The problem does not involve inflammation of tissues. Instead, it typically has a range of causes, such as problems with blood supply, like a tumor or aneurysm, a nutritional deficiency, high blood or fluid pressure, or toxic effects from a chemical. It typically only affects one eye.

What Symptoms Indicate Optic Neuropathy?

The optic nerve is a bundle of fibers that transmit visual information to the brain after light has been collected in the back of the eye and interpreted first by rods and cones that make up the retina. The main symptom of optic neuropathy is vision loss, which may be so slow in progressing that it is not noticeable until it is significant.

Other signs of optic neuropathy include clouding or darkening of vision for a few seconds, which then resolves. This sudden and short change in vision is called a transient ischemic attack, which can indicate that there is a potential issue with the blood flow to your optic nerve. You may suffer vision damage if you ignore this symptom, and you may have blood flow problems in other parts of your body, including to your brain.

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While there are several potential causes of optic neuropathy, some of the most common symptoms include:

  • Pain in the eyes.
  • Loss of peripheral vision, or the sides of the visual field.
  • Loss of color vision.
  • Flashing lights called
  • Loss of sight in one eye but not the other.
  • Double vision.
  • Pain in the eye socket or face.

Optic Neuropathy: What Is It & Can You Reverse It? | NVISION Eye Centers (2)

Problems That Can Cause Optic Neuropathy

Almost any underlying, chronic condition, injury, or toxin can lead to nerve damage in the eyes. It is important to know what your risks are, so if you begin to experience changes to your vision, you can visit your eye doctor immediately and discuss the potential causes of your vision issues.

  • Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy: While this is a rare condition, a side effect of preexisting eye damage or inflammatory conditions can become optic neuropathy over time.One case study reported that an individual with asthma, migraines, and a family history of ocular sarcoidosis and lupus in close relatives reported painful loss of vision in the left eye. Attacks occurred frequently, but they were temporary. There was no involvement in the right eye, but other physical symptoms occurred when loss of left eye vision occurred. These were symptoms of ongoing damage to the optic nerve.
  • Compressive and infiltrative optic neuropathy: This is compression of blood vessels in or around the optic nerve and retina caused by compression or invasion of other tissues, usually from another source like a tumor. Aneurysms, strokes, or severe injury can also cause infiltrative optic neuropathy.
  • Disease and nutritional deficiency: Some diseases may cause optic neuropathy. For example, Dengue fever has had instances of optic neuropathy associated with the condition. The virus caused optic neuritis, which led to damage to the optic nerve.While this is rare, disease as a cause of optic nerve damage may be underreported. Diabetes and hypertension are diseases that are also associated with blood flow problems that cause nerve damage, including to the optic nerve.Addiction is a chronic medical condition that can contribute to nutritional deficiency, making optic neuropathy worse. Anorexia nervosa, anemia, gastrointestinal disease, pathogens, kidney failure, and metabolic disorders may also contribute to nutritional deficiency associated with optic nerve damage.Diagnosing these conditions should involve a review of overall physical health to look for gait problems, sensory disturbances, and changes to touch sensitivity in the extremities. Loss of vitamin B12, or thiamine, is the most common source of nutritional optic neuropathy. This condition is often caused by an underlying disease.
  • Heredity: There are some genetic conditions that lead to optic nerve degradation, congenitally or over time. These include:
    • Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON).
    • Dominant optic atrophy.
    • Behr syndrome.
    • Berk-Tabatznik syndrome.
  • Ischemic optic neuropathy: One of the more common forms of optic neuropathy, this condition is caused by insufficient blood flow to the optic nerve, leading to tissue damage and death.There are two parts of the optic nerve: the anterior and the retrobulbar. The anterior section is supplied with blood from the short posterior ciliary artery and choroidal circulation. The retrobulbar optic nerve gets blood flow from pial plexus, which comes from a cluster of other arteries.Ischemic optic neuropathy is classified based on where the cut-off blood flow comes from.
    • Anterior ischemic: Diseases or injury causes harm to the head of the optic nerve, leading to swelling of the optic disc.
    • Posterior ischemic: There is no disc swelling at first, but there is a subsequent development of optic atrophy due to lack of blood from posterior blood supplies, often associated with sudden loss of vision.
    • Radiation: This form of optic atrophy occurs due to changes in blood supply caused by radiation treatment, such as those for cancer. This damage to the optic nerve from loss of blood flow may occur three to eight months after treatment.
    • Medication for hepatitis C: Changes to blood flow caused by interferon or other treatments for hepatitis C may lead to damage to the optic nerve.
  • Optic neuritis: This is inflammation that can, at its most extreme, damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. Pain and temporary loss of vision in one or both eyes can suggest that optic neuritis is beginning. It is also one of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), a progressive, chronic condition that leads to nerve damage, including in the spinal cord and the brain. Optic neuritis may be one of the first signs of MS, or it could occur later as the disease progresses. This type of nerve damage has also been associated with autoimmune disorders (particularly lupus), which can cause inflammation that damages the optic nerve.Some causes of optic neuritis can be managed with medicated eye drops, but most require overall medical treatment, as the optic nerve damage is a symptom of a larger disease.
  • Toxic neuropathy: Drug abuse or toxic chemicals in the environment can lead to damage to the optic nerve. Drugs; metals like lead, mercury, and thallium; organic solvents including ethylene glycol and toluene; carbon dioxide; methanol; and cigarette smoke can all damage the optic nerve.Unlike some forms of optic neuropathy, toxic causes are likely to lead to bilateral loss of vision. The problem may be triggered or enhanced by nutritional deficiencies, particularly associated with substance abuse or drug addiction.

Optic Neuropathy: What Is It & Can You Reverse It? | NVISION Eye Centers (3)

Optic Neuropathy Treatment Usually Involves Addressing Underlying Conditions

If you develop any symptoms of optic neuropathy, you need to see an ophthalmologist immediately. You may also benefit from working with your general practitioner on potential underlying diseases or health risks that may have led to damage to your sight.

Your ophthalmologist and/or GP may refer you to a neuro-ophthalmologist who can test the connection between your optic nerve and your brain. They can diagnose the severity of the damage and how to best treat the underlying cause.

It is important to know that your visual acuity, or the sharpness of your vision as tested by the Snellen chart, may not be affected. Normal annual eye exams may not detect damage to the optic nerve unless there is associated damage to the retina. This is why it is important to report any symptoms you experience as soon as possible.

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Treatment for optic neuropathy may slow down the progression of damage, but you will not regain the sight you lost. If you struggle with an underlying medical condition, diagnosing and treating that will reduce harm to your sight.

References

Optic Neuropathy. (2009) The Free Dictionary, Medical Dictionary.

Clinical Approaches to Optic Neuropathies. (September 2007). Clinical Ophthalmology.

Chronic Relapsing Inflammatory Optic Neuropathy. (April 9, 2018). Neurology.

Dengue Optic Neuropathy. (January 2009). Ophthalmology Journal, American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO).

Toxic Optic Neuropathies: An Updated Review. (2015). Acta Ophthalmologia.

(Video) LASIK eye surgery complications. Should you have LASIK? What to do if you have complications.

Hereditary Optic Neuropathies. (2004). Nature: Eye.

What Is Ischemic Optic Neuropathy? (April 25, 2018). American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO).

Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (AION). (May 9, 2017). Medscape.

Optic Neuritis. (November 4, 2016). Mayo Clinic.

The information provided on this page should not be used in place of information provided by a doctor or specialist. To learn more, read our Privacy Policy and Editorial Policy pages.

FAQs

Can you reverse optic neuropathy? ›

Is optic neuropathy reversible? It depends on the type of optic neuropathy. Nonarteritic optic neuropathy cannot be cured, but around 40% restore some vision naturally. Arteric optic neuropathy also cannot be cured, but quick treatment can prevent the issue affecting the other eye.

How do you fix optic neuropathy? ›

Optic neuritis usually improves on its own. In some cases, steroid medications are used to reduce inflammation in the optic nerve. Possible side effects from steroid treatment include weight gain, mood changes, facial flushing, stomach upset and insomnia. Steroid treatment is usually given by vein (intravenously).

Can optic neuropathy improve? ›

There are no effective treatments to regenerate nerve cells or to restore connections between the eye and brain once the optic nerve is lost. This is a major barrier in the field and one that must be overcome, given the substantial number of patients suffering from optic neuropathy-associated blindness.

What are the main causes of optic neuropathy? ›

Bacterial infections, including Lyme disease, cat-scratch fever and syphilis, or viruses, such as measles, mumps and herpes, can cause optic neuritis. Other diseases. Diseases such as sarcoidosis, Behcet's disease and lupus can cause recurrent optic neuritis. Drugs and toxins.

What is the best vitamin for optic nerve damage? ›

Vitamin B12 , folic acid and other B-complex vitamins are essential for a healthy brain and immune system; these vitamins enable the nervous system to function properly and are needed to make both red blood cells and DNA.

What is the most common optic neuropathy? ›

The most common acute optic neuropathies include ischemic optic neuropathy (ION), optic neuritis and trauma. In patients ages 50 and up, acute anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) is the most common presentation. AION is divided further into non-arteritic (NAION) and arteritic (AAION).

Can glasses help optic nerve damage? ›

There is no known cure, nor effective treatment for Optic Atrophy, and healthcare is directed at the management of symptoms. Although there is no cure, enhanced vision glasses such as eSight may help individuals living with the condition to experience significant improvement in sight.

What is the most common cause of optic nerve damage? ›

The most common is poor blood flow. This is called ischemic optic neuropathy. The problem most often affects older adults. The optic nerve can also be damaged by shock, toxins, radiation, and trauma.

Does optic neuropathy cause blindness? ›

Optic neuropathy is a condition caused by the damage or degradation of the optic nerve. It can lead to blindness. This eye problem has several underlying causes.

How can I strengthen my eye nerves? ›

Here are some exercises you can try:
  1. The 20-20-20 rule. When you're focused on a task, pause every 20 minutes to focus on something that's 20 feet away for 20 seconds.
  2. Blink break. You blink less when you're focused on a TV or computer screen. ...
  3. Palms for relaxation. ...
  4. Figure eight. ...
  5. Roll your eyes. ...
  6. Near and far.
15 Jun 2020

How long does it take for the optic nerve to heal? ›

The optic nerve may take up to 6 to 12 months to heal completely, but most patients recover as much vision as they are going to within the first few months.

What medications can cause optic nerve damage? ›

Causes of toxic optic neuropathy include chemicals and drugs, such as methanol, ethylene glycol, ethambutol, isoniazid, digitalis, cimetidine, vincristine, cyclosporine, toluene, and amiodarone.

Can you have optic nerve damage without glaucoma? ›

High Pressure Without Glaucoma. Approximately 3-6 million Americans and 4-7% of people above the age of 40 years old have elevated IOP without evidence of glaucomatous optic nerve damage.

How do you increase oxygen to the optic nerve? ›

Exercise regularly

Growing scientific evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can increase crucial oxygen supplies to the optic nerve and lower pressure in the eye. Reducing intraocular 'eye' pressure can help control conditions such as glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

Can surgery fix optic nerve damage? ›

Damage to the optic nerve is inevitably associated with blindness or significant visual impairment and has long been held to be irreversible. Once diagnosed, for example in patients with glaucoma, medication or surgery can help stem further damage, but can only preserve what sight remains.

Which fruit is beneficial for eyes? ›

Look to Fruits and Vegetables for Good Eye Health
Foods Rich in Antioxidants for Eye HealthAntioxidants Related to Eye Health
Red berries, kiwi, red and green bell peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, spinach, and juices made from guava, grapefruit, and orange.Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
5 more rows

What is the most important vitamin for eyes? ›

Vitamin A

Vitamin A plays a crucial role in vision by maintaining a clear cornea, which is the outside covering of your eye. This vitamin is also a component of rhodopsin, a protein in your eyes that allows you to see in low light conditions ( 1 ).

What is the difference between optic atrophy and optic neuropathy? ›

Since the optic nerve transmits retinal information to the brain, optic atrophy is associated with vision loss. Optic atrophy is somewhat of a misnomer as atrophy implies disuse, and thus optic nerve damage is better termed optic neuropathy.

Does brain MRI show optic nerve? ›

MRI can show optic nerve compression by swollen extraocular muscles, and it can demonstrate inflammation of extraocular muscles and orbital fat tissue with high-intensity signal on STIR images. The optic nerve in dysthyroid optic neuropathy is almost normal on conventional MRI.

Can eye doctor see nerve damage? ›

Your eye doctor can diagnose optic neuritis during a routine eye exam through a series of vision tests and looking at the structures inside your eye. Blood tests and MRIs may be ordered to check for other conditions related to optic neuritis.

What are the symptoms of a damaged optic nerve? ›

Common symptoms of optic nerve damage include vision distortion, loss of vision, eye redness, and pain when moving the eye. These symptoms may also be present with a variety of other eye conditions, so a proper diagnosis by a qualified medical professional is needed.

Can you drive with optic neuritis? ›

Optic neuritis may affect your ability to drive. You have a legal obligation to tell the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) about any medical condition that could affect your driving.

What neurological disorders cause eye problems? ›

Types of Neuro-Visual Disorders
  • Optic Neuropathies. Damage to the optic nerves can cause pain and vision problems, most commonly in just one eye. ...
  • Optic Neuritis. ...
  • Giant Cell (Temporal) Arteritis. ...
  • Chiasm Disorders.

Where does optic nerve enter brain? ›

Accompanied by the ophthalmic artery, the optic nerve enters the bony skull through the optic foramen and travels within the optic canal to reach the middle cranial fossa. Located in the middle cranial fossa is the optic chiasm.

What your eyes say about your brain? ›

Your eyes can provide clues linked to Alzheimer's

A recent British study shows that your eyes might provide clues to your brain health: specifically, certain changes in your retina have been associated with Alzheimer's disease.

What is the treatment for ischemic optic neuropathy? ›

A-PION, like A-AION, requires urgent treatment with high-dose steroid therapy to prevent any further visual loss in one or both eyes. There is no satisfactory treatment for surgical PION, except to take prophylactic measures to prevent its development.

How do I stop my optic nerve from thinning? ›

Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment for optic atrophy. Once the nerve fibers in the optic nerve are lost they never heal or grow back. However, early diagnosis and treatment of the underlying causes of optic atrophy can help prevent further damage from the disease.

What food is good for the optic nerve? ›

To get them, fill your plate with:
  • Green leafy vegetables like spinach, kale, and collards.
  • Salmon, tuna, and other oily fish.
  • Eggs, nuts, beans, and other nonmeat protein sources.
  • Oranges and other citrus fruits or juices.
  • Oysters and pork.
14 Jun 2022

Is there surgery for optic nerve? ›

Optic nerve decompression surgery (also known as optic nerve sheath decompression surgery) involves cutting slits or a window in the optic nerve sheath to allow cerebrospinal fluid to escape, thereby reducing the pressure around the optic nerve.

Is optic nerve damage permanent? ›

Permanent damage to the optic nerve occurs in about 85 per cent of cases, but the damage does not always cause serious vision problems.

Can eyesight be restored? ›

Can Eyesight Be Improved Naturally? Unfortunately, eyesight cannot be improved naturally and there is no way to change a refractive error, such as myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, or presbyopia. These types of visual conditions can be treated with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery.

Is there a cure for optic atrophy? ›

Treatment. Damage from optic nerve atrophy cannot be reversed. The underlying disease must be found and treated. Otherwise, vision loss will continue.

Can stress cause optic neuritis? ›

In fact, continuous stress and elevated cortisol levels negatively impact the eye and brain due to autonomous nervous system (sympathetic) imbalance and vascular dysregulation; hence stress may also be one of the major causes of visual system diseases such as glaucoma and optic neuropathy.

Can Covid affect the optic nerve? ›

[3] Optic neuritis is one such rare manifestation. The three cases of optic neuritis being reported by us had mild COVID-19 infection. Two cases developed ocular symptoms and signs within the first six weeks of recovery while another case developed ocular manifestations six months after recovery from COVID-19.

How do you reduce inflammation of the optic nerve? ›

Conventional treatments for optic neuritis typically include use of steroid injections to reduce inflammation, sometimes a treatment called plasma exchange (PE) therapy (also called intravenous immune globulin) that cleans the blood, and medications to treat underlying health conditions.

How common is optic nerve damage? ›

The rate of optic nerve disorders varies with each form of the condition. Glaucoma is the most common optic nerve disorder and occurs in more than 3 million people each year in the U.S.

Can blood pressure medication cause eye problems? ›

High blood pressure meds are also known as hypertension medication. They have beta-blockers work in the bloodstream to counteract high blood pressure. But they can harm the lacrimal gland, leading to dry eye symptoms. Beta-blockers also seem to disrupt feeling in the cornea and can lead to overall eye irritation.

What is drug induced optic neuropathy? ›

Drug-induced optic neuropathy is a group of disorders in which medications cause degeneration of the optic nerve. The true prevalence of drug-induced neuropathy has not been studied, although the percentage of patients who develop optic nerve damage is known for individual medications.

What is the best vitamin to take for glaucoma? ›

Vitamin C.

The evidence for vitamin C's impact on glaucoma is mixed. One study found that intra-venous vitamin C lowered IOP 20 percent over two hours; it does appear to have a significant osmotic effect, similar to mannitol.

What do glaucoma halos look like? ›

When looking at lights, people with glaucoma will see a rainbow-colored circle around them. Some people will not even be able to look at the light to see the halo, which is another sign of glaucoma that has advanced from the halo stage. The best way to test this sign of glaucoma is to simply look at a light.

How can I reverse glaucoma naturally? ›

For this question, the answer is no. Once a person is diagnosed with glaucoma, there is currently no cure for the condition so that it can be reversed, and no way to undo the damage already done in terms of vision loss.

Is there a cure for optic neuropathy? ›

Nonarteritic optic neuropathy cannot be cured, but around 40% restore some vision naturally. Arteric optic neuropathy also cannot be cured, but quick treatment can prevent the issue affecting the other eye.

Can optic neuropathy improve? ›

There are no effective treatments to regenerate nerve cells or to restore connections between the eye and brain once the optic nerve is lost. This is a major barrier in the field and one that must be overcome, given the substantial number of patients suffering from optic neuropathy-associated blindness.

What vitamin is good for the optic nerve? ›

Nutritional Support

Nutritional optic neuropathy arises especially due to vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies. Certain nutrients such as lutein, vinpocetine, l-lysine, bilberry, alpha lipoic acid, magnesium and a number of other vitamins & enzymes and omega-3s support optic nerve health.

How long does it take for neuropathy to reverse? ›

Treatments for Neuropathy

However, in some situations, symptoms of neuropathy may lessen but not completely go away. For example, nerve injury caused by radiation often does not recover well. Neuropathy caused by chemotherapy is also difficult to cure, and recovery may take 18 months to five years or longer.

Can neuropathy reversed naturally? ›

While you can't reverse the damage from neuropathy, there are ways to help manage the condition, including: lowering your blood sugar. treating nerve pain. regularly checking your feet to make sure they are free of injury, wounds, or infection.

Does neuropathy ever go away? ›

Living with peripheral neuropathy. The symptoms of peripheral neuropathy may lessen or go away over time, but in some cases they never go away. These are some ways to learn to live with it: Use pain medicines as your doctor prescribes them.

What is the fastest way to get rid of neuropathy? ›

Regular exercise, such as walking three times a week, can reduce neuropathy pain, improve muscle strength and help control blood sugar levels. Gentle routines such as yoga and tai chi might also help.

What is the most common treatment for neuropathy? ›

The main medicines recommended for neuropathic pain include: amitriptyline – also used for treatment of headaches and depression. duloxetine – also used for treatment of bladder problems and depression. pregabalin and gabapentin – also used to treat epilepsy, headaches or anxiety.

Which vitamin helps neuropathy? ›

B vitamins are known for their ability to support healthy nervous system function. Vitamins B-1, B-6, and B-12 have been found to be especially beneficial for treating neuropathy. Vitamin B-1, also known as thiamine, helps to reduce pain and inflammation and vitamin B-6 preserves the covering on nerve endings.

What is the best home remedy for neuropathy? ›

8 natural treatments for peripheral neuropathy
  • Vitamins. Some cases of peripheral neuropathy are related to vitamin deficiencies. ...
  • Cayenne pepper. Cayenne pepper contains capsaicin, an ingredient in hot peppers that makes them spicy. ...
  • Quit smoking. ...
  • Warm bath. ...
  • Exercise. ...
  • Essential oils. ...
  • Meditation. ...
  • Acupuncture.

How does apple cider vinegar help neuropathy? ›

The minerals found in it, like magnesium, phosphorous, calcium and potassium, are all essential for getting rid of nerve pain. Also a great anti-inflammatory agent, apple cider vinegar can help combat the inflammation caused by nerve pain.

What food is good for the optic nerve? ›

To get them, fill your plate with:
  • Green leafy vegetables like spinach, kale, and collards.
  • Salmon, tuna, and other oily fish.
  • Eggs, nuts, beans, and other nonmeat protein sources.
  • Oranges and other citrus fruits or juices.
  • Oysters and pork.
14 Jun 2022

Can glasses help with optic nerve damage? ›

There is no known cure, nor effective treatment for Optic Atrophy, and healthcare is directed at the management of symptoms. Although there is no cure, enhanced vision glasses such as eSight may help individuals living with the condition to experience significant improvement in sight.

Can optic nerve damage be stopped? ›

Damage from optic nerve atrophy cannot be reversed. The underlying disease must be found and treated. Otherwise, vision loss will continue. Rarely, conditions that lead to optic atrophy may be treatable.

What is the life expectancy with neuropathy? ›

There are several key factors that affect a patient's prognosis in familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), but most people with the rare, inherited, progressive disease have a life expectancy of about 10 years after being diagnosed.

What is the latest treatment for neuropathy? ›

The most effective treatment was nortriptyline. Of the study subjects taking this medication, 25% reported their discomfort improved by at least 50%. The least effective treatment was pregabalin: only 15% of study subjects reported that much improvement. Side effects were common with all of the treatments.

What can a neurologist do for neuropathy? ›

Treatment for Peripheral Neuropathy

Our neurologists prescribe medication to treat neuropathy. A procedure called plasma exchange can help some people with peripheral neuropathy achieve remission.

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