Osteoporosis Diet Dangers: Foods to Avoid (2023)

Getting enough calcium and vitamin D is essential for warding off osteoporosis. For even stronger bones, avoid these everyday osteoporosis diet dangers.

Osteoporosis Diet Danger 1: Salt Is Bad for the Bone!

Salt can pose a great obstacle to a sturdy skeleton. Research has found that postmenopausal women with a high-salt diet lose more bone minerals than other women of the same age.

"The salt content of the typical American diet is one of the reasons why calcium requirements are so high," says Linda K. Massey, PhD, RD, a professor of human nutrition at Washington State University in Spokane.

Massey says studies show that regular table salt, not simply sodium, causes calcium loss, weakening bones with time. That’s important because Americans get about 90% of our sodium through salt.

We also get about twice as much sodium as we should. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise limiting sodium to 2,300 milligrams a day – equal to a teaspoon of salt. But most Americans get at least 4,000 milligrams a day.

"Generally speaking, for every 2,300 milligrams of sodium you take in, about 40 milligrams of calcium is lost in the urine," Massey explains.

Getting the recommended amounts of calcium and vitamin D every day helps offset bone loss from salt.

(Video) 10 Worst Foods to Eat That's Bad for Your Bones (Osteoporosis) - Dr. Alan Mandell, D.C.

  • Adults up to age 50 require 1,000 milligrams of calcium daily -- the equivalent of three 8-ounce glasses of milk.
  • Older adults need 1,200 milligrams of daily calcium – about half a glass more of milk.

As for vitamin D:

  • People need 200 International Units (IU) of vitamin D a day until age 50.
  • Adults need 400 IU of vitamin D from the ages of 51 to 70 years.
  • Seniors need 600 IU of vitamin D a day after age 70.

Good sources of vitamin D are natural sunlight and from fortified milk, egg yolks, saltwater fish, liver, and supplements.

Of all the dangers to bone, salt is perhaps the hardest to curb. Salt shows up in nearly all processed foods, including whole grain breads, breakfast cereals, and fast foods.

Removing the salt shaker from the table, and cooking without added salt, helps. But avoiding processed foods provides the biggest bang for the buck. Processed foods supply 75% of the sodium we eat.

If you want to get a grip on this diet danger, here are some of the highest-salt foods to limit or avoid. Choose no-added salt versions whenever possible.

  • Processed meats, such as deli turkey and ham, and hot dogs
  • Fast food, such as pizza, burgers, tacos, and fries
  • Processed foods, including regular and reduced-calorie frozen meals
  • Regular canned soups and vegetables and vegetable juices
  • Baked products, including breads and breakfast cereals

Scan food labels for sodium content. There's a good chance the majority of it comes from salt, so the lower the sodium, the better for bones.

When you dine out, check the web sites of your favorite restaurants for the sodium content of the dishes you order most often. If your typical meals exceed 800 milligrams of sodium, opt for lower-sodium alternatives, such as grilled fish or chicken, steamed vegetables, baked potato, and salad. Request that your meal be prepared without salt, too.

(Video) Osteoporosis Is Not a Calcium Deficiency – Remedies for Osteoporosis – Dr.Berg

If you think you can’t lower your salt sufficiently, eat plenty of potassium-rich foods, such as bananas, tomatoes, and orange juice. Potassium may help decrease the loss of calcium.

Osteoporosis Diet Danger 2: Some Popular Drinks

Many soft drinks and certain other carbonated soft drinks contain phosphoric acid, which can increase calcium excretion in your urine. And nearly all soft drinks lack calcium. That combination spells trouble for women at risk of osteoporosis.

"Excess phosphorus promotes calcium loss from the body when calcium intake is low," Massey explains.

The occasional soda is fine, but many people, particularly women, consume more than an occasional can or glass. To make matters worse, soft drink consumers may also avoid calcium-laden beverages that bolster bones, such as milk, yogurt-based drinks, and calcium and vitamin D fortified orange juice.

To prevent osteoporosis, instead sip these drinks:

  • Eight ounces of orange juice fortified with calcium and vitamin D
  • A mixture of fortified orange juice and seltzer or club soda that's free of phosphoric acid
  • Fruit smoothie: Combine 8 ounces fat-free yogurt, one medium banana or a cup of fresh or frozen berries and 2 ice cubes in a blender or food processor
  • Fat-free plain or chocolate milk

Osteoporosis Diet Danger 3: The Cost of Caffeine

Caffeine leaches calcium from bones, sapping their strength.

"You lose about 6 milligrams of calcium for every 100 milligrams of caffeine ingested," Massey says.

(Video) Prevent Osteoporosis Diet Naturally - Dr Ekberg

That's not as much of a loss as salt, but it's worrisome, nonetheless. Caffeine is a particular problem when a woman doesn’t get enough calcium each day to begin with.

The good news is that limiting caffeine intake to 300 milligrams a day while getting adequate calcium probably offsets any losses caffeine causes, Massey says.

Coffee is a major caffeine source. For example, a 16-ounce cup of coffee can provide 320 milligrams. High-caffeine sodas can contain up to 80 milligrams per can or more.

Although tea also contains caffeine, studies suggest it does not harm, and probably helps, bone density in older women, regardless of whether they add milk to the beverage. Researchers think that tea contains plant compounds that protect bone.

Ready to curb caffeine? Here are some tips:

  • Wean yourself from coffee by drinking half regular and half-decaf drinks to start
  • Avoid caffeine-laden drinks
  • Reach for decaffeinated iced tea or hot tea
  • Splurge on a decaf, fat-free latte drink and get 450 milligrams of calcium in the bargain

Osteoporosis Diet Danger 4: Is Protein Problematic?

The idea that protein, particularly animal protein, is problematic for bones is a myth, says bone researcher Jane Kerstetter, PhD, RD, professor of nutrition at the University of Connecticut. "Protein does not dissolve bone. Just the opposite."

Bones are about 50% protein. Bone repair requires a steady stream of dietary amino acids, the building blocks of body proteins.

"Adequate calcium and vitamin D cast a protective net around bones, but protein comes in a close second," Kerstetter says.

(Video) Osteoporosis Diet Dangers: Foods to Avoid | Aarogyamastu | 12th March 2019 | ఆరోగ్యమస్తు

Although most Americans get plenty of protein, many older women fail to get enough protein on a daily basis and it's hurting their bones, according to Kerstetter.

The suggested daily protein intake is 0.8 grams of protein per 2.2 pounds for men and women over age 19. That amounts to about 55 grams of protein a day for a 150-pound woman and about 64 grams a day for a 175-pound man.

Get the protein you need to bolster bones with these protein sources:

  • 3 ounces light tuna, drained: 22 grams protein
  • 3 ounces cooked chicken, turkey, or pork tenderloin: about 20 grams
  • 3 ounces cooked salmon: 19 grams
  • 8 ounces fat-free plain yogurt: 13 grams
  • 8 ounces fat-free milk: 8 grams
  • 1 medium egg: 6 grams

Osteoporosis Diet Danger 5: There's Something About Soy

While soy products such as edamame, tofu, tempeh, and soy beverages are rich in bone-building protein, they contain plant compounds that may hamper calcium absorption.

Oxalates in soy can bind up calcium and make it unavailable to the body, Massey says. Problems may arise when you eat a lot of soy but don’t eat a lot of calcium, according to Kerstetter.

The research is mixed about soy. Some small studies show soy can cause problems with bone strength; others show that the right type of soy (with the soy isoflavones genistein and daidzein) protect bone strength. To avoid any risk, be sure to get a lot of calcium in your diet, primarily through dairy foods or supplements.

Soy products fortified with calcium may foster a false sense of security. When researchers compared calcium content and solubility of calcium-added beverages, they found that much of the calcium in soy and other beverages sank to the bottom of the container and could not be redistributed throughout the drink, even with shaking.

(Video) I Reversed Osteoporosis Naturally, Without Drugs!

Still, fortified soy products, such as tofu processed with calcium, provide a hefty dose of bone-building nutrients and make a good addition to a balanced diet. If your diet is heavy on soy, be sure to also take in at least 1,000 milligrams of calcium every day.

Best Diet to Beat Osteoporosis

"You can't feel osteoporosis, so it's not always easy to imagine that what you're eating, or not, is harming your bones," Kerstetter says. "But your diet is really important on a daily basis. If you string together a bunch of bad eating days, it's dangerous in the long run."

The safest strategy is eating a diet that’s low in salt and rich in fresh and minimally processed whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Include enough calcium and vitamin D from foods, and supplements if necessary, and be sure to limit caffeine and carbonated drinks.

FAQs

What foods increase the risk of osteoporosis? ›

Inflammatory Foods

Nightshade vegetables, such as tomatoes, mushrooms, peppers, white potatoes, and eggplant, can cause bone inflammation, which can lead to osteoporosis,” Khader says.

What foods help heal osteoporosis? ›

One great choice: dark leafy greens such as bok choy, Chinese cabbage, kale, collard greens, and turnip greens. One cup of cooked turnip greens has about 200 milligrams of calcium (20% of your daily goal). On top of that, dark greens also have vitamin K, which can reduce your risk for osteoporosis.

What foods leach calcium from bones? ›

Animal protein—in fish, poultry, red meat, eggs, and dairy products—tends to leach calcium from the bones and encourages its passage into the urine. Plant protein—in beans, grains, and vegetables—does not appear to have this effect.

What foods destroy bone density? ›

What foods destroy bone density?
  • Excess salt.
  • Hydrogenated oil.
  • Alcohol.
  • Food rich in vitamin A.
  • Soft drinks.
29 Aug 2022

What are 3 common causes of osteoporosis? ›

There are three common causes of osteoporosis:
  • Estrogen Deficiencies in Women. Women typically suffer estrogen deficiencies during perimenopause and menopause. ...
  • Calcium Deficiencies. Bones are constantly losing and replacing minerals. ...
  • Inactive Lifestyle.
11 Feb 2014

Can coffee trigger osteoporosis? ›

To date, it is well known that consumption of coffee may increase urinary excretion of calcium which may induce osteoporosis especially in people with inadequate calcium intake such as the elderly.

Are eggs good for osteoporosis? ›

Eggs are one of the few foods that contain vitamin D, which is a vital partner to calcium when building healthy bones. November is the perfect time to talk about pairing calcium and vitamin D in egg and dairy recipes since November is Osteoporosis Month.

What is the fastest way to increase bone density? ›

Keep reading for tips on increasing bone density naturally.
  1. Weightlifting and strength training. ...
  2. Eating more vegetables. ...
  3. Consuming calcium throughout the day. ...
  4. Eating foods rich in vitamins D and K. ...
  5. Maintaining a healthy weight. ...
  6. Avoiding a low calorie diet. ...
  7. Eating more protein. ...
  8. Eating foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids.
30 Jul 2019

Which fruit is best for bones? ›

Food rich in vitamin C such as oranges, orange juice, bananas, plantains, prunes, grapefruits, strawberries, papaya, pineapples, and guava. Fruit juices that contain calcium and vitamin D. Fruits rich in vitamin K such as blueberries, raspberries, plums, grapes, and figs are good for bones.

What drink is good for osteoporosis? ›

Fortified milk

No surprise here! Milk is a classic go-to for bone health for good reason. Dairy products are some of the highest dietary sources of calcium, the mineral that serves as a building block of the skeleton.

What foods block calcium absorption? ›

Foods rich in phytic acid and oxalic acid, like spinach and Brazil nuts, have the potential to block calcium absorption. If your bones feel achy or your muscles feel particularly fatigued, calcium absorption could be to blame.

Is oatmeal good for osteoporosis? ›

Oats are also believed to be the best whole grain to consume when it comes to preventing osteoporosis. The combination of minerals within oats makes them great for promoting bone mineral density.

What are the five bone dissolving foods seniors must avoid? ›

Foods to limit or avoid
  • High-salt foods.
  • Alcohol. While a moderate amount of alcohol is considered safe for those with osteoporosis, excess alcohol can lead to bone loss. ...
  • Beans/legumes. While beans have some healthy attributes for women with osteoporosis, they're also high in phytates. ...
  • Wheat bran. ...
  • Excess vitamin A. ...
  • Caffeine.

Why is spinach not good for bones? ›

Spinach. One of the many nutrients found in spinach is calcium. However, there are oxalates present in spinach that are known to bind with calcium, leaving the said mineral inaccessible to the body. Experts suggest for you to eat spinach together with other calcium-containing foods to keep your bones strong.

Does chocolate affect bone density? ›

Chocolate is a rich source of antioxidant and antiinflammatory flavonoids and dietary minerals with the potential to benefit bone health. However, other chocolate constituents such as cocoa butter, sugar, and methylxanthines may be detrimental to bone.

Which nuts are good for bones? ›

Most nuts and seeds boast an impressive nutrient profile, but a select few are especially good for combatting bone degeneration. Macadamia nuts, walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, and sunflower seeds contain calcium, magnesium, zinc and other essential nutrients.

What is the richest source of calcium? ›

Sources of calcium include: milk, cheese and other dairy foods. green leafy vegetables – such as curly kale, okra but not spinach (spinach does contain high levels of calcium but the body cannot digest it all) soya drinks with added calcium.

What is the root cause of osteoporosis? ›

Poor diet – If your diet doesn't include enough calcium or vitamin D, or if you're very underweight, you'll be at greater risk of osteoporosis. Heavy smoking – Tobacco is directly toxic to bones. In women it lowers the oestrogen level and may cause early menopause.

What organs are affected by osteoporosis? ›

Osteoporosis is a bone disease that causes your bones to be weak and more likely to break. Organs affected by osteoporosis include the ovaries and thyroid gland.

How can I reverse osteoporosis? ›

The short answer is no, osteoporosis cannot be completely reversed and is not considered curable, but there are a number of health and lifestyle adjustments you can make to improve bone loss. Your provider may also prescribe you medications to help rebuild and slow down bone loss.

How can I increase my bone density after 60? ›

There are things you should do at any age to prevent weakened bones. Eating foods that are rich in calcium and vitamin D is important. So is regular weight-bearing exercise, such as weight training, walking, hiking, jogging, climbing stairs, tennis, and dancing.

What is the best source of calcium for osteoporosis? ›

What are the best ways to get enough calcium?
  • Dairy products have the highest calcium content. ...
  • Dark green, leafy vegetables contain high amounts of calcium. ...
  • A serving of canned salmon or sardines has about 200 mg of calcium. ...
  • Cereal, pasta, breads and other food made with grains may add calcium to the diet.
29 Nov 2020

Is walking good for osteoporosis? ›

You can prevent bone loss with regular exercise, such as walking. If you have osteoporosis or fragile bones, regular brisk walking can help to keep your bones strong and reduce the risk of a fracture in the future. How should you walk and how often? You should walk briskly on a regular basis.

Is Avocado good for osteoporosis? ›

May help prevent osteoporosis

Half an avocado provides approximately 18% of the daily value of vitamin K. This nutrient is often overlooked but is essential for bone health. Taking in enough vitamin K can support bone health by increasing calcium absorption and reducing the urinary excretion of calcium.

Is chicken good for osteoporosis? ›

Skinless chicken and other lean meats also provide a healthy dose of protein to support bone density and tissue growth.

Is Bananas good for osteoporosis? ›

Pick potassium

Foods that are high in potassium can also build bone health. Tomatoes, potatoes, papayas, oranges, and bananas are all excellent sources of this nutrient.

Can vitamin D reverse osteoporosis? ›

In some cases, a person can reverse osteoporosis bone loss with certain medications. People can maintain bone health by eating a nutritious diet, doing weight bearing exercise, and taking calcium and vitamin D supplements.

What is the newest treatment for osteoporosis? ›

Romosozumab (Evenity).

This is the newest bone-building medication to treat osteoporosis. It is given as an injection every month at your doctor's office and is limited to one year of treatment.

What type of exercise can reverse osteoporosis? ›

In order to notice changes in bone density, cardiovascular workouts should involve weight-bearing. Swimming and biking aren't weight-bearing, so walking, jogging and dancing are more effective, she says. It's also important to dial up your exercise intensity while you're working out.

Which yogurt is best for osteoporosis? ›

Greek Yogurt:

It's higher in protein and has fewer carbs compared to regular yogurt, but it's also lower in calcium – a key nutrient for bone health. It's a great choice, especially for women, because we need more protein as we age to help maintain muscle and bone.

Are carrots good for bones? ›

Carrots contain vitamin K and small amounts of calcium and phosphorus. All of these contribute to bone health and may help prevent osteoporosis.

Is ice cream good for osteoporosis? ›

The calcium found in ice cream also helps the health of bones and teeth. In making the bones stronger and more dense, it is directly related to preventing osteoporosis, which affects many people in later life.

What drink helps bone growth? ›

A prune smoothie will be the most beneficial for strengthening your bones if you use whole prunes. Prunes contain nutrients like vitamin K, phosphorus, boron, and potassium that all work in unison to help support your body's bone structure and protect your bones from breaking down as you age.

Is Ginger good for bones? ›

Ginger has been demonstrated to be effective against bone-related disorders such as osteoarthritis (17,18). Taken together, it is suggested that ginger theoretically has the potential for beneficial effects on bone metabolism; however, its effects on bone metabolism are sketchy.

Can I drink coffee with osteoporosis? ›

High doses of caffeine (800 mg) can double the amount of calcium lost in the urine.

How can I increase my bone strength naturally? ›

5 ways to boost bone strength early
  1. Monitor your diet. Get enough calcium and vitamin D, ideally through the foods you eat. ...
  2. Maintain a reasonable weight. ...
  3. Don't smoke and limit alcohol intake. ...
  4. Make sure your workouts include weight-bearing exercises. ...
  5. Talk with your doctor about your risk factors.

Can you rebuild bone density? ›

While you can never regain the bone density you had in your youth, you can help prevent rapidly thinning bones, even after your diagnosis.

Does oatmeal block vitamin absorption? ›

1) Soak your oats

Grains contain phytic acid, which, when untreated, combines with calcium, magnesium, copper, iron and zinc within the intestinal track. This results in the blocking of the absorption of these minerals.

Which vegetable has the most calcium? ›

Cooked kale, spinach, and collard greens are all good calcium sources. Collard greens having the highest amount: a half-cup provides 175 mg of calcium. Orange juice and cereals are often fortified with calcium. Calcium citrate malate is a well-absorbed form found in some fortified juices.

What has more calcium than milk? ›

1. Green vegetables. Kale has around 250 milligrams (mg) of calcium per 100g, which is comparatively higher than whole milk's 110mg per 100g. Some other green veg, including collard greens, are good sources of calcium, too.

Does broccoli help with bone density? ›

Every serving of broccoli serves your bones well. This cruciferous vegetable is a good source of calcium, and it's also packed with vitamin K, a nutrient that is essential for the formation of osteocalcin (a type of protein found only in bone).

What breakfast foods are high in calcium? ›

Breakfast foods high in calcium include milk, yogurt, calcium-fortified soy milk and soy yogurt, cheese, cottage cheese, tofu processed with calcium sulfate, calcium-fortified breakfast cereals and calcium-fortified orange juice.

Is peanut butter good for your bones? ›

Iron and calcium are found in abundance in peanut butter which are important for transporting oxygen in the blood and promoting healthy, strong bones. According to The Orthopedic Group, P.C, “Including healthy protein in your daily diet like peanut butter is a good option to maintain strong bones.”

How can I increase my bone density naturally? ›

Keep reading for tips on increasing bone density naturally.
  1. Weightlifting and strength training. ...
  2. Eating more vegetables. ...
  3. Consuming calcium throughout the day. ...
  4. Eating foods rich in vitamins D and K. ...
  5. Maintaining a healthy weight. ...
  6. Avoiding a low calorie diet. ...
  7. Eating more protein. ...
  8. Eating foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids.
30 Jul 2019

Which fruit is best for bones? ›

Food rich in vitamin C such as oranges, orange juice, bananas, plantains, prunes, grapefruits, strawberries, papaya, pineapples, and guava. Fruit juices that contain calcium and vitamin D. Fruits rich in vitamin K such as blueberries, raspberries, plums, grapes, and figs are good for bones.

What foods block calcium absorption? ›

Foods rich in phytic acid and oxalic acid, like spinach and Brazil nuts, have the potential to block calcium absorption. If your bones feel achy or your muscles feel particularly fatigued, calcium absorption could be to blame.

Are eggs good for osteoporosis? ›

Eggs are one of the few foods that contain vitamin D, which is a vital partner to calcium when building healthy bones. November is the perfect time to talk about pairing calcium and vitamin D in egg and dairy recipes since November is Osteoporosis Month.

What is the richest source of calcium? ›

Sources of calcium include: milk, cheese and other dairy foods. green leafy vegetables – such as curly kale, okra but not spinach (spinach does contain high levels of calcium but the body cannot digest it all) soya drinks with added calcium.

Is oatmeal good for osteoporosis? ›

Oats are also believed to be the best whole grain to consume when it comes to preventing osteoporosis. The combination of minerals within oats makes them great for promoting bone mineral density.

How can I increase my bone density after 70? ›

There are things you should do at any age to prevent weakened bones. Eating foods that are rich in calcium and vitamin D is important. So is regular weight-bearing exercise, such as weight training, walking, hiking, jogging, climbing stairs, tennis, and dancing.

What drink is good for bone strength? ›

Orange Juice

Often times, orange juice is fortified with nutrients, such as calcium and vitamin D, say Galanis and Dorfman. Thus, drinking some OJ first thing in the morning could be beneficial for strengthening your bones!

Which nuts are good for bones? ›

Most nuts and seeds boast an impressive nutrient profile, but a select few are especially good for combatting bone degeneration. Macadamia nuts, walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, and sunflower seeds contain calcium, magnesium, zinc and other essential nutrients.

Which yogurt is best for osteoporosis? ›

Greek Yogurt:

It's higher in protein and has fewer carbs compared to regular yogurt, but it's also lower in calcium – a key nutrient for bone health. It's a great choice, especially for women, because we need more protein as we age to help maintain muscle and bone.

What is the best source of calcium for osteoporosis? ›

What are the best ways to get enough calcium?
  • Dairy products have the highest calcium content. ...
  • Dark green, leafy vegetables contain high amounts of calcium. ...
  • A serving of canned salmon or sardines has about 200 mg of calcium. ...
  • Cereal, pasta, breads and other food made with grains may add calcium to the diet.
29 Nov 2020

How can I reverse osteoporosis? ›

The short answer is no, osteoporosis cannot be completely reversed and is not considered curable, but there are a number of health and lifestyle adjustments you can make to improve bone loss. Your provider may also prescribe you medications to help rebuild and slow down bone loss.

Can you rebuild bone density? ›

While you can never regain the bone density you had in your youth, you can help prevent rapidly thinning bones, even after your diagnosis.

Is Avocado good for osteoporosis? ›

May help prevent osteoporosis

Half an avocado provides approximately 18% of the daily value of vitamin K. This nutrient is often overlooked but is essential for bone health. Taking in enough vitamin K can support bone health by increasing calcium absorption and reducing the urinary excretion of calcium.

Is chicken good for osteoporosis? ›

Skinless chicken and other lean meats also provide a healthy dose of protein to support bone density and tissue growth.

Is Bananas good for osteoporosis? ›

Pick potassium

Foods that are high in potassium can also build bone health. Tomatoes, potatoes, papayas, oranges, and bananas are all excellent sources of this nutrient.

Videos

1. Osteoporosis (Weak Bones) Can Supplements & Vegetables In Diet Reverse Bone Loss (Science Based)
(Bob & Brad)
2. Reverse/Prevent OSTEOPOROSIS (Get Stronger Bones) 2022
(KenDBerryMD)
3. Prevent Osteoporosis with Diet - Eating Habits & Foods for Osteoporosis Prevention.
(The Habits Doctor)
4. OSTEOPOROSIS - PREVENT AND REVERSE with DIET & LIFESTYLE TOP TIPS - Gillian Killiner RD - DIETITIAN
(Dietitian - Gillian Killiner RD)
5. The Missing Mineral in Strong Bones
(Dr. Eric Berg DC)
6. 7 Foods You Should NEVER Eat If You Have Arthritis (R.A)/Fibromyalgia - REAL Patient
(Bob & Brad)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Sen. Emmett Berge

Last Updated: 12/06/2022

Views: 6589

Rating: 5 / 5 (80 voted)

Reviews: 87% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Sen. Emmett Berge

Birthday: 1993-06-17

Address: 787 Elvis Divide, Port Brice, OH 24507-6802

Phone: +9779049645255

Job: Senior Healthcare Specialist

Hobby: Cycling, Model building, Kitesurfing, Origami, Lapidary, Dance, Basketball

Introduction: My name is Sen. Emmett Berge, I am a funny, vast, charming, courageous, enthusiastic, jolly, famous person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.